Recreational activity in which participants live outdoors, often in the wilderness, usually using tents, trailers, or motor homes, but sometimes only a sleeping bag, for shelter.

Modern camping originated near the end of the 19th century in the U.S. as a rough, back-to-nature pastime for hardy lovers of nature. Canoes were the original vehicle; bicycle camping soon followed. Camping was a major part of the programs of the Boy Scouts and Girl Guides (see scouting). It gained greatly in popularity after World War II. As the number of campgrounds with greater amenities grew, it became the standard holiday for many ordinary families. Recent decades have seen its continued growth, to the point of placing a serious strain on the resources of state and federal outdoor-recreation areas. See also backpacking.

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 recreational activity in which participants take up temporary residence in the outdoors, usually using tents (tent) or specially designed or adapted vehicles for shelter. Camping was at one time only a rough, back-to-nature pastime for hardy open-air lovers, but it later became the standard holiday for vast numbers of ordinary families.

 The founder of modern recreational camping was Thomas Hiram Holding, who wrote the first edition of The Camper's Handbook in 1908. His urge to camp derived from his experiences as a boy: in 1853 he crossed the prairies of the United States in a wagon train, covering some 1,200 miles (1,900 km) with a company of 300. In 1877 he camped with a canoe on a cruise in the Highlands of Scotland, and he made a similar trip the next year. He wrote two books on these ventures. Later he used a bicycle as his camping vehicle and wrote Cycle and Camp (1898).

      Holding founded the first camping club in the world, the Association of Cycle Campers, in 1901. By 1907 it had merged with a number of other clubs to form the Camping Club of Great Britain and Ireland. Robert Falcon Scott (Scott, Robert Falcon), the famous Antarctic explorer, became the first president of the Camping Club in 1909.

      After World War I, Robert Baden-Powell (Baden-Powell, Robert Stephenson Smyth Baden-Powell, 1st Baron), founder of the Boy Scouts and the Girl Guides, became president of the Camping Club of Great Britain (United Kingdom) and Ireland, which fostered the establishment of camping organizations in a number of western European countries. In 1932 the International Federation of Camping and Caravanning (Fédération Internationale de Camping et de Caravanning; FICC) was formed—the first international camping organization.

      In North America individuals camped in the wilderness for recreation from the early 1870s, traveling on foot, on horseback, or by canoe; but there was no organized camping. Many organizations, such as the Adirondack Mountain Club (founded 1922), the Appalachian Mountain Club (1876), and the Sierra Club (1892), have catered to campers for a long time. However, the organization of campers on a large scale did not develop until after World War II, when increased leisure time and the advent of camping with motorized vehicles caused a tremendous growth in the activity.

      The majority of organized campers in North America belong to local clubs, but there are two large-scale national organizations in the United States (National Campers and Hikers Association and North American Family Campers Association) and one in Canada (Canadian Federation of Camping and Caravanning).

      Individual camping is very popular in Australia and New Zealand, but organized facilities are relatively few compared with those in North America. Recreational camping continues to increase in popularity in Africa and portions of Asia.

Youth camping
      Organized camping of another kind started in the United States in 1861 with a boys' camp, run by Frederick William Gunn and his wife at Milford-on-the-Sound for students of the Gunnery School for Boys in Washington, Conn. Its success was immediate and was repeated for 18 successive years. Other similar camps began to develop. The first girls' camp was established in 1888 by Luther Halsey Gulick and his wife on the Thames River in Connecticut.

 When the Boy Scouts of America was formed in 1910 by Ernest Thompson Seton (Seton, Ernest Thompson), it incorporated camping as a major part of its program. Similar emphasis on camping was to be found in the Girl Guides (founded in Great Britain in 1910), the Camp Fire Boys and Girls (U.S., 1910), and the Girl Scouts (U.S., 1912; patterned after the Girl Guides). Most other organizations concerned with young people, such as the Young Men's Christian Association (YMCA), the Young Women's Christian Association (YWCA), and many others, also undertook camp development as an important part of their activities.

Modern camping
      All forms of camping, from primitive to motorized, continue to grow in popularity, particularly in the United States, Canada, and western Europe. Much of this growth is the result of the proliferation of campsites for recreational vehicles (RVs). In particular, many public and commercial campsites cater to RVs by setting aside paved parking regions in picturesque locations. Camping on public land is especially popular in the United States and Canada, where federal and regional government agencies strive to meet the burgeoning public demand. Commercial RV campgrounds typically have electrical and water hookups that provide most of the conveniences of home in an outdoor setting.

      There have been many technical advances in camping materials and gear. Lightweight nylon tents are easier to pack and set up than their canvas predecessors, they offer superior protection from rain, and they are also easier to carry, which has facilitated a boom in hiking and camping. Lightweight aluminum cookware and portable stoves have also reduced the overall weight of gear for primitive campers.

Alan Ryalls Robert Lee Petri

Additional Reading
Two good references are David Armentrout, Camping (1998); and Tom Huggler, The Camper's and Backpacker's Bible (1995).Robert Lee Petri

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Universalium. 2010.

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