(as used in expressions)Zhao Zheng
* * *Chinese plucked board zither roughly 47 inches (120 cm) long and 12 inches (30 cm) wide. Its resonator is galley-shaped, and in cross section the top is curved and the bottom flat. The strings are stretched over the surface, fastened at the left end and at the right where there are pegs for tuning. A moveable bridge under each of the strings can adjust the string's pitch. In different historical periods, the number of the strings varied: in roughly the 5th century, there were 12 strings, from the 10th to the 14th century, 13 strings, and from the 14th century on, 15 or 16 strings. In the 1960s the number increased to 18, 21, and 25 strings. The most frequently used type has 21 strings. Present-day strings are metal, although they were probably silk in ancient times. In performance the zheng is placed on a table or rack in front of the player, who plucks the strings to the right of the bridges using the first three or four fingers of the right hand. Ornamentations and pitch alterations are created by pressing on the strings to the left of the bridges with the fingers of the left hand.The zheng originated in the 3rd century BC. It can still be heard in surviving courtly solo and chamber music in Vietnam, where it is known as a tranh. All zhengs are tuned to a pentatonic scale. Variations beyond the scale, as well as trills and glides, can be achieved by means of various pressing techniques used to the left of the bridge. The zheng was used in folk music ensembles or local operas. In the 20th century it has gradually become a solo musical instrument.
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