- Yamagata Aritomo
born Aug. 3, 1838, Hagi, Japandied Feb 1, 1922, TokyoFirst prime minister under Japan's parliamentary regime (1889–91, 1898–1900).As a samurai youth in Chōshū province, Yamagata was among those who answered the foreign threat with the slogan "Sonnō jōi" ("Revere the emperor, expel the barbarians"). In 1864 Western gunboats bombarded the Chōshu coast, convincing him of the need for modern armaments. After participating in the Meiji Restoration, he went abroad to research military institutions, returning to become commander of an imperial force of 10,000 troops. When he introduced conscription, bearing arms ceased to be the exclusive prerogative of a warrior class. His forces defeated Saigō Takamori's rebellion in 1877. In politics he was more conservative than his contemporary Itō Hirobumi, favouring a strong executive. As prime minister, his policies were expansionist; Japan sent the largest of all foreign forces to China to quell the Boxer Rebellion. He increased the autonomy of the military and tried to suppress an incipient social-labour movement. After retirement, he continued to wield power as a genro (elder statesman). See also Meiji Constitution; Meiji period.
* * *▪ prime minister of JapanIntroductionborn Aug. 3, 1838, Hagi, Japandied Feb. 1, 1922, TokyoJapanese soldier and statesman who exerted a strong influence in Japan's emergence as a formidable military power at the beginning of the 20th century. He was the first prime minister under the parliamentary regime, serving in 1889–91 and 1898–1900.Early careerYamagata was from a family of the lowest samurai rank in the Chōshū domain, a region of western Japan strongly opposed to the Tokugawa military dictatorship that ruled Japan from the early 17th century until the Meiji Restoration of 1868 reestablished the formal authority of the emperor. He began his career as an errand boy of the treasury office and an informer in the police administration. Educated from about 1858 at Shōka-Sonjuku, a private school, he became a promising member of revolutionary loyalists who were incensed by the growth of foreign influence under the shogunate and who raised the cry “Sonnō jōi” (“Revere the emperor! Expel the barbarians!”). In 1863 Yamagata was chosen commanding officer of the Kiheitai, the best-known of the irregular troop units formed by the revolutionaries in Chōshū. He was wounded while serving during the Shimonoseki Incident in 1864—the bombardment of Chōshū by an allied fleet of Western powers that destroyed Japanese defenses. The defeat opened Yamagata's eyes to the superiority of the Western military system and convinced the leaders of the Sonnō Jōi movement that their “antiforeign” policy was doomed to failure unless Japan acquired efficient modern armament equal to that of the Western powers.In 1867 the Tokugawa shogunate was overthrown, and in 1868 the Meiji government was proclaimed. When adherents of the shogunate in the north rose against the Meiji emperor, Yamagata headed a military expedition to suppress the revolt. The incident convinced him that the popular troops he led were superior to the regular army of the northern domains and that the country's security would best be safeguarded by a system of universal obligatory military service.Yamagata was sent abroad to study military institutions as a step toward modernizing the Japanese army. After returning to Japan in 1870, he became secretary to the vice minister of military affairs. Intending to abolish the system of the feudal domains and to centralize political power, he proposed forming an Imperial Force (Goshimpei). In early 1871, when a force of about 10,000 men drawn from the feudal armies was organized, Yamagata was promoted to vice minister of military affairs. This Imperial Force was later renamed the Imperial Guard (Konoe), and Yamagata became its commander.With the help of the restoration hero Saigō Takamori, who wielded great influence in the army, Yamagata succeeded in introducing conscription. He became minister of the army after the government reorganized the military system into an army and a navy. After Saigō had resigned from the government in protest of what he thought was its restrained policy toward Korea, Yamagata assumed greater influence over the government.The right to determine government policies still lay largely in the hands of the councillor (sangi) to the Executive Council. Thus, in 1874 when a punitive expedition to Formosa (Taiwan) was discussed, Yamagata, though minister of the army, had no voice in the decision. This fact made him determined to work toward separating military policies from civilian control. Because the Japanese army was not yet ready for war against China, he had opposed the Formosa expedition, and, in order to allay his opposition, the government reluctantly promoted him to sangi in August 1874.In 1877 Saigō and his adherents in western Kyushu rose against the government, and Yamagata headed the expeditionary forces that put down the revolt. His victory proved once again the superiority of the conscript army over the former samurai troops. It also helped to establish his leadership in the army.In 1878 Yamagata issued “Admonition to the Military,” a set of instructions to soldiers that emphasized the old virtues of bravery, loyalty, and obedience to the emperor and was intended to counteract democratic and liberal trends. After separating the Operations Department from the Army Ministry and reorganizing the General Staff Office, he resigned as army minister and assumed the position of chief of the general staff. He also took the important step of refashioning the Japanese military system according to the Prussian model.In 1882 Yamagata induced the emperor to promulgate the “Imperial Rescript to Soldiers and Sailors”—in essence a recapitulation of Yamagata's “Admonition to the Military”—which was to become the spiritual guidepost of the imperial army until Japan's surrender at the end of World War II. In anticipation of the Sino-Japanese War, he reorganized the army to adapt it for field operations. He entered politics in 1882 while still chief of the general staff and became president of the Legislative Board (Sangiin), a group of elders who advised the government concerning the establishment of the basic principles of the Meiji constitution. As home minister from 1883 to 1889, he established local government bodies, modernized the police system, and perfected controls over both institutions. As always, he was intent on creating a strong executive in anticipation of a future challenge from the parties. He was created a count in 1884 and resigned as chief of the general staff.Rise to political powerIn 1889, after surveying systems of local government in Europe for a year, he returned to Japan to become the first prime minister under the country's newly established parliamentary system. More conservative than Itō Hirobumi, who had drafted the Japanese constitution, Yamagata proposed to the first Diet that Japan should expand its dominion over part of the Asian continent. When he was promoted to full general, he became the virtual head of the army. He induced the emperor to proclaim the “Imperial Rescript on Education,” the guideline under the Meiji regime. In 1891 Yamagata, exhausted by party strife, resigned as prime minister. He served, however, as minister of justice (1892–93) and president of the Privy Council (1893–94) and remained a member of the genro (elder statesmen), an informal body of confidential advisers to the emperor.Yamagata was put in command of troops sent to Korea when the Sino-Japanese War broke out in 1894, but sickness forced him to return home in the middle of the war. In May 1895, after its victory over China, Japan was confronted by a combined Russian-German-French diplomatic intervention. Yamagata, who became special ambassador to Moscow in 1896, helped reach a compromise with Russia regarding the two countries' interests on the Korean peninsula. His promotion to field marshal in 1898 affirmed his preeminent position in Japan's military and political life.Yamagata's second cabinet was organized in November 1898. Half of its members were generals and admirals, and with their help he succeeded in accelerating his expansionist policy in Asia. When the Boxer Rebellion broke out in China, Yamagata, at Great Britain's request, dispatched the largest of the foreign contingents that were sent to put down the uprising. That force played a major role in suppressing the Chinese nationalist movement and boosted Japan's international position. Domestically, Yamagata did his best to suppress the social-labour movement in its incipient stage, while strengthening the autonomy of the armed service and the bureaucracy. He also issued a governmental regulation that permitted only officers on active service to be appointed army and navy ministers, thus virtually freeing the military from civilian control.Yamagata's second cabinet resigned in October 1900, when it found that it could deal neither with the nation's financial crisis brought on by military expansion nor with the problem of the division of China by the powers after the Boxer Rebellion. From 1903 until 1909 he and Itō alternately served as president of the Privy Council. During the Russo-Japanese War (1904–05) he was chief of the general staff, and in 1907 he was awarded the title of prince for his distinguished service. He anticipated a recurrence of war between Japan and Russia and prepared a contingency plan for war with the United States and Russia, which eventually played a substantial part in the entry of Japan into World War II.Without a rival after Itō's assassination in 1909, Yamagata led Japan as a virtual dictator, backed by the military and the bureaucracy under his influence. He consistently opposed the creation of a genuine cabinet. When the Chinese revolution broke out in 1911, he endeavoured to help sustain the Qing dynasty, and soon after the outbreak of World War I he succeeded in transforming the agreement with tsarist Russia into the military pact. In 1921, however, he meddled in the crown prince's marriage and was publicly censured. Yamagata died in disgrace the following year.Michio FujimuraAdditional ReadingThe three biographies of Yamagata, in Japanese—by Fujimura Michio (1961), by Oka Yoshitake (1958), and by Tokutomi Iichiro (1933, reprinted 1969)—are all excellent. A publication in English, Roger F. Hackett, Yamagata Aritomo in the Rise of Modern Japan, 1838–1922 (1971), gives a full account of his life.
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