- Wu Sangui
or Wu San-kueidied Oct. 2, 1678, Hengzhou, Hunan provinceThough he had for many years battled the Manchu on China's northeastern frontier, he turned to them for aid when the Ming-dynasty capital at Beijing fell to rebel leader Li Zicheng. The Manchu forces defeated Li and then set up their own dynasty, in which Wu served many years. Only when he was put in charge of eliminating the remnants of Ming resistance in southwestern China did he break away, creating his own state in the area of Yunnan and Guizhou. Two other commanders had set up similar states in neighbouring southern provinces; in 1673 Wu led the three in rebellion. After Wu's death, his grandson continued the rebellion until 1681, when it was finally crushed. See also Dorgon.
* * *▪ Chinese generalWade-Giles romanization Wu San-kueiborn 1612, Liaodong, Chinadied Oct. 2, 1678, Hengzhou, HunanChinese general who invited the Manchu of Manchuria into China and helped them establish the Qing dynasty in 1644. Later, in southwestern China, he led a revolt against the Qing in an attempt to set up his own dynasty.Wu had been the Ming (Ming dynasty) general in charge of defending the northeast frontier against the Manchu. When the imperial capital at Beijing was attacked by the rebel bandit leader Li Zicheng, Wu's forces were summoned to aid in raising the siege, but the city fell (April 1644) before his arrival. Li then advanced against Wu, who appealed to the Manchu for aid. A combined force of Ming and Manchu troops drove Li from Beijing, where the Manchu then set up the Qing dynasty. Although loyal Ming officials beseeched Wu for aid in restoring the Ming dynasty, he accepted high rank from the Manchu and for nearly 30 years fought for the Qing cause.In 1659 Wu was put in charge of eliminating the remnants of Ming resistance in the southwest, and to this end he was given civil and military control of the southwestern province of Yunnan. With these powers he created an independent satrapy in Yunnan and neighbouring Guizhou province, collecting taxes and developing trade monopolies in the area. At the same time two other commanders set up similar satrapies in the neighbouring southern provinces of Guangdong and Fujian, and South China became an independent power that rivaled the Qing government in the north.In 1673, when the Qing dynasty tried to check these southern kingdoms, Wu led them in a rebellion. In 1674 he advanced into central China but then hesitated, possibly because the Manchu were holding his son hostage. The Manchu then seized the initiative, but Wu still kept his force active. In March 1678 Wu set up his own dynasty, named Dazhou, in Hengzhou (now Hengyang), Hunan province, and proclaimed himself the emperor. Later that same year, Wu died of dysentery. His grandson continued the rebellion until 1681, when it was finally crushed. The incident is known in Chinese history as the Revolt of the Three Feudatories.
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