Ashkenazi [äsh΄kə näz′ē; ash΄kə naz′ē]
pl. Ashkenazim [äsh΄kənäz′im, ash΄kənaz′im]Heb, a German Jew; earlier, a German, after ashkenaz, name of an ancient kingdom (see Jer. 51:27), after ashkenaz, second son of Gomer (see Gen. 10:3); prob. akin to Akkadian ishkuzai (> Gr Skythoi, the Scythians)
1. a member of the group of Jews that, after the Diaspora, settled in central, northern, and, later, eastern Europe and developed Yiddish as their spoken language
2. a descendant of this group: Distinguished from SEPHARDI

* * *

Ash·ke·naz·i (äsh'kə-näʹzē) n. pl. Ash·ke·naz·im (-năzʹĭm, -näʹzĭm)
A member of the branch of European Jews, historically Yiddish-speaking, who settled in central and northern Europe.
  [Medieval Hebrew ’aškənāzî, from ’aškənaz, Germany, adoption of Hebrew ’aškənaz, name of one of Noah's grandsons and of a neighboring people, perhaps alteration of earlier *’aškûz, Scythians; akin to Akkadian ašguzai, iškuzai, from Old Persian Saka-, Skūča-.]   Ash'ke·nazʹic (-näʹzĭk) adj.

* * *

Any of the historically Yiddish-speaking European Jews who settled in central and northern Europe, or their descendants.

They lived originally in the Rhineland valley, and their name is derived from the Hebrew word Ashkenaz ("Germany"). After the start of the Crusades in the late 11th century, many migrated east to Poland, Lithuania, and Russia to escape persecution. In later centuries Jews who adopted the German-rite synagogue ritual were called Ashkenazim to differentiate them from the Sephardic, or Spanish-rite, Jews (see Sephardi), from whom they differ in cultural traditions, pronunciation of Hebrew, and synagogue chanting as well as in the use of the Yiddish language (until the 20th century). Today they constitute more than 80% of the world's Jews.

* * *

      (from Hebrew Ashkenaz, “Germany”), plural Ashkenazim, any of the Jews who lived in the Rhineland valley and in neighbouring France before their migration eastward to Slavic lands (e.g., Poland, Lithuania, Russia) after the Crusades (11th–13th century). After the 17th-century persecutions in eastern Europe, large numbers of these Jews resettled in western Europe, where they assimilated, as they had done in eastern Europe, with other Jewish communities. In time, all Jews who had adopted the “German rite” synagogue ritual were referred to as Ashkenazim to distinguish them from Sephardic (Sephardi) (Spanish rite) Jews. Ashkenazim differ from Sephardim in their pronunciation of Hebrew, in cultural traditions, in synagogue cantillation (chanting), in their widespread use of Yiddish (until the 20th century), and especially in synagogue liturgy.

      Today Ashkenazim constitute more than 80 percent of all the Jews in the world, vastly outnumbering Sephardic Jews. In the late 20th century, Ashkenazic Jews numbered more than 11,000,000. In Israel the numbers of Ashkenazim and Sephardim are roughly equal, and the chief rabbinate has both an Ashkenazic and a Sephardic chief rabbi on equal footing. All Reform and Conservative Jewish congregations belong to the Ashkenazic tradition. Compare Sephardi.

* * *

Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Ashkenazi — ► NOUN (pl. Ashkenazim) ▪ a Jew of central or eastern European descent. Compare with SEPHARDI(Cf. ↑Sephardic). ORIGIN from Ashkenaz, a grandson of Noah …   English terms dictionary

  • Ashkenazi — [äsh΄kə näz′ē; ash΄kə naz′ē] n. pl. Ashkenazim [äsh΄kənäz′im, ash΄kənaz′im] [Heb, a German Jew; earlier, a German, after ashkenaz, name of an ancient kingdom (see Jer. 51:27), after ashkenaz, second son of Gomer (see Gen. 10:3); prob. akin to… …   English World dictionary

  • Ashkenazi — Cette page d’homonymie répertorie les différents sujets et articles partageant un même nom. Ashkénaze désigne un Juif d Europe Centrale ou de l Est. En tant que patronyme Léon Ashkénasi (1922 1996), rabbin, kabbaliste et philosophe juif français… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Ashkenazi — noun (plural Ashkenazim) Etymology: Late Hebrew Ashkĕnāzī, from Ashkĕnāz, medieval rabbinical name for Germany Date: 1839 a member of one of the two great divisions of Jews comprising the eastern European Yiddish speaking Jews compare Sephardi •… …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • Ashkenazi — Los ashkenazim (singular ashkenazi, transliterado muchas veces al castellano como asquenazí ) son la comunidad judía que se trasladó a Europa central y oriental en el curso de las sucesivas migraciones de la Diáspora. En su mayoría llegaron a los …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Ashkenazi — adj. Ashkenazi is used with these nouns: ↑Jew, ↑Judaism …   Collocations dictionary

  • ashkenazi — {{#}}{{LM A03673}}{{〓}} {{[}}ashkenazi{{]}} ‹ash·ke·na·zi› {{《}}▍ adj.inv./{{》}} → {{↑}}asquenazí{{↓}}. {{★}}{{\}}PRONUNCIACIÓN:{{/}} [askenázi] …   Diccionario de uso del español actual con sinónimos y antónimos

  • Ashkenazi — Aschkenasim (hebr. אַשְכְּנַזִים‎, deutsch Aschkenasen, weitere Schreibweisen: Askenasim, Ashkenazim, Ashkenasim) ist die Selbstbenennung der West und Ostjuden, die eine gemeinsame religiöse Tradition und Kultur verbindet. Während sich unter den… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Ashkenazi — 1. adjective Of or relating to Jews of German and Eastern Europe origin, and their traditions, customs, and rituals. 2. noun An Askhenazi Jew. See Also: Ashkenazic …   Wiktionary

  • Ashkenazi —  An East or Central European Jew; pl. Ashkenazim …   Bryson’s dictionary for writers and editors

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”