William and Mary, College of

William and Mary, College of
State-supported college in Williamsburg, Va.

The second-oldest institution of higher education in the U.S. (after Harvard University), it was chartered in 1693 by King William III and Queen Mary II. Its alumni include Thomas Jefferson, John Marshall, James Monroe, John Tyler, and Gen. Winfield Scott. George Washington was the college's first American chancellor, from 1788 to 1799. The honour society Phi Beta Kappa was organized as a social fraternity there in 1776.

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      state coeducational university of liberal arts at Williamsburg, Virginia, U.S. The second oldest institution of higher education in the United States (after Harvard College), it was chartered in 1693 by cosovereigns King William III and Queen Mary II of England to develop clergymen and civil servants for the colony. The scholastic honour society Phi Beta Kappa was organized there as a social fraternity in 1776. Seven signers of the Declaration of Independence (including its author, Thomas Jefferson (Jefferson, Thomas)), U.S. Supreme Court Chief Justice John Marshall (Marshall, John), and President James Monroe (Monroe, James) were college alumni, as were President John Tyler (Tyler, John), General Winfield Scott (Scott, Winfield), and statesman John Randolph (Randolph, John). George Washington was the college's first American chancellor (1788–99).

      In the period after the American Revolution and under the influence of the Enlightenment and the French Revolution, William and Mary reformed its curriculum. Two divinity professorships were dropped, and the study of law, political economy, history, mathematics, and modern languages, particularly French, was emphasized. Jefferson was instrumental in this process of secularization. William and Mary pioneered the elective system (allowing students to choose their own programs). In 1906 the college became state supported, and women were first admitted in 1918. The school acquired university status in 1967. The modern college has a faculty of arts and sciences and schools of business administration, education, law, and marine science. Total enrollment is approximately 7,500.

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Universalium. 2010.

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