I. Kal·myk1 (kălʹmĭk, kăl-mĭkʹ) also Kal·muck or Kal·muk (kălʹmŭk, kăl-mŭkʹ) n. pl. Kalmyk or Kal·myks also Kalmuck or Kal·mucks or Kalmuk or Kal·muks
1. A member of a Buddhist Mongol people now located primarily in Kalmyk.
2. The Mongolian language of this people.
  [Russian, from Kazan Tatar.]   II. Kal·myk2 (kălʹmĭk, kăl-mĭkʹ)
A region of southwest Russia on the Caspian Sea. Settled in the early 17th century by Kalmyk people from central China, it came under Russian control after 1646.

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also spelled  Kalmuck,  

      Mongol people residing chiefly in Kalmykia republic, in southwestern Russia. Their language belongs to the Oyrat (Oirat), or western, branch of the Mongolian language group. The Oyrat dialects are also spoken in western Mongolia, Sinkiang, and neighbouring provinces of China. The home of the Kalmyk lies west of the Volga River in its lower courses, in an arc along the northwestern shore of the Caspian Sea. A small number of Kalmyk of the Buzawa tribe live along the Don River. Another small group, called the Sart Kalmyk, live in Kyrgyzstan near the Chinese border. A few emigrated after World War II to the United States.

      The western Mongols were enemies of the eastern Mongols at the time of their imperial apogee in the 13th century AD. During the following centuries they maintained a separate existence under a confederation known as the Dörben Oyrat (“Four Allies,” from which the name Oyrat is derived); at times they were allies, at times enemies, of the eastern Mongols. Part of the western Mongols remained in their homeland, northern Sinkiang, or Dzungaria, and western Mongolia. Part of the Oyrat confederation, including all or part of the Torgut, Khoshut, Dorbet (or Derbet), and other groups, moved across southern Siberia to the southern Urals at the beginning of the 17th century. From there they moved to the lower Volga, and for a century and a half, until 1771, they roamed both to the east and west of this region. During the course of the 18th century, they were absorbed by the Russian Empire, which was then expanding to the south and east. In 1771, those of the left bank, to the east of the Volga, returned to China. The right-bank Kalmyk, comprising the contemporary Torgut, Dorbet, and Buzawa, remained in Russia.

      The Kalmyk are by long tradition nomadic pastoralists. They raise horses, cattle, sheep, goats, and a few camels. Their nomadism is of a classical pattern: an annual round of movement from winter camp to spring, summer, and fall pasture, and return. The Kalmyk home is a tent (called a ger, or yurt) made of felt on a lattice frame, readily assembled and disassembled. Where they have taken to agriculture, they have introduced fixed dwellings.

      Family life, descent lines, marriage relations, and inheritance of property are all principally regulated by the paternal connection. The family is traditionally an extended one composed of parents, married sons and their families, and unmarried sons and daughters. Several families are grouped into nomadic kin villages. The kin villages are grouped into lineages and clans, and these in turn were formerly grouped into clan confederations. Traditionally the Kalmyk were divided into a princely estate, which ruled the various confederations; a noble estate, which ruled the lower social hierarchies, clans, and lineages; and a common estate. There was also a clerical order forming an estate of its own. All but the common estate have disappeared.

      Like other Mongols, the Kalmyk are Tibetan Buddhists, but their Buddhism has a strong admixture of indigenous beliefs and shamanistic practices. The Sart Kalmyk are Muslims.

      At the end of World War II the Kalmyk were accused of anti-Soviet activity and exiled to Soviet Central Asia. In 1957 they were restored to their home territories. According to the censuses of 1939 and 1959, they decreased in number from 134,000 to 106,000 in 20 years. In 1970 they numbered about 137,000, and in 1979, 147,000.

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Universalium. 2010.

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