Wesley, John

Wesley, John
(1703–1791) Anglican clergyman, evangelist, and cofounder of Methodism.

The 15th child of a former Nonconformist minister, he graduated from Oxford University and became a priest in the Church of England in 1728. From 1729 he participated in a religious study group in Oxford organized by his brother Charles (1707–1788), its members being dubbed the "Methodists" for their emphasis on methodical study and devotion. Its numbers grew, and it began to undertake social and charitable activities. After a largely unsuccessful mission to the North American colony of Georgia (1735–37), they returned to London, where they came under the influence of the Moravian Church. In 1738, inspired by the theology of Martin Luther, both men had a religious experience that convinced them that salvation was possible through faith alone. Zealous evangelists, they had great success in preaching to the masses in the succeeding decades. In 1784 John began ordaining ministers himself when the bishop of London refused to do so (despite Charles's disapproval) and declared his independence from the Church of England. The two wrote several thousand hymns, including "Hark, the Herald Angels Sing" and "Christ the Lord Is Ris'n Today."

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▪ English clergyman
born June 17, 1703, Epworth, Lincolnshire, Eng.
died March 2, 1791, London
 Anglican clergyman, evangelist, and founder, with his brother Charles, of the Methodist movement in the Church of England.

      John Wesley was the second son of Samuel, a former Nonconformist (dissenter from the Church of England) and rector at Epworth, and Susanna Wesley. After six years of education at the Charterhouse, London, he entered Christ Church, Oxford University, in 1720. Graduating in 1724, he resolved to become ordained a priest; in 1725 he was made a deacon by the Bishop of Oxford and the following year was elected a fellow of Lincoln College. After assisting his father at Epworth and Wroot, he was ordained a priest on Sept. 22, 1728.

      Recalled to Oxford in October 1729 to fulfill the residential requirements of his fellowship, John joined his brother Charles, Robert Kirkham, and William Morgan in a religious study group that was derisively called the “Methodists” because of their emphasis on methodical study and devotion. Taking over the leadership of the group from Charles, John helped the group to grow in numbers. The “Methodists,” also called the Holy Club, were known for their frequent communion services and for fasting two days a week. From 1730 on, the group added social services to their activities, visiting Oxford prisoners, teaching them to read, paying their debts, and attempting to find employment for them. The Methodists also extended their activities to workhouses and poor people, distributing food, clothes, medicine, and books and also running a school. When the Wesleys left the Holy Club in 1735, the group disintegrated.

      Following his father's death in April 1735, John was persuaded by an Oxford friend, John Burton, and Col. James Oglethorpe, governor of the colony of Georgia in North America, to oversee the spiritual lives of the colonists and to missionize the Indians as an agent for the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel. Accompanied by Charles, who was ordained for this mission, John was introduced to some Moravian (Moravian church) emigrants who appeared to him to possess the spiritual peace for which he had been searching. The mission to the Indians proved abortive, nor did Wesley succeed with most of his flock. He served them faithfully, but his stiff high churchmanship antagonized them. He had a naive attachment to Sophia Hopkey, niece of the chief magistrate of Savannah, who married another man, and Wesley unwisely courted criticism by repelling her from Holy Communion. In December 1737 he fled from Georgia; misunderstandings and persecution stemming from the Sophia Hopkey episode forced him to go back to England.

      In London John met a Moravian, Peter Böhler, who convinced him that what he needed was simply faith, and he also discovered Martin Luther's commentary on the Letter of Paul to the Galatians, which emphasized the scriptural doctrine of justification by grace through faith alone. On May 24, 1738, in Aldersgate Street, London, during a meeting composed largely of Moravians under the auspices of the Church of England, Wesley's intellectual conviction was transformed into a personal experience while Luther's preface to the commentary to the Letter of Paul to the Romans was being read.

      From this point onward, at the age of 35, Wesley viewed his mission in life as one of proclaiming the good news of salvation by faith, which he did whenever a pulpit was offered him. The congregations of the Church of England, however, soon closed their doors to him because of his enthusiasm. He then went to religious societies, trying to inject new spiritual vigour into them, particularly by introducing “bands” similar to those of the Moravians—i.e., small groups within each society that were confined to members of the same sex and marital status who were prepared to share intimate secrets with each other and to receive mutual rebukes. For such groups Wesley drew up Rules of the Band Societies in December 1738.

      For a year he worked through existing church societies, but resistance to his methods increased. In 1739 George Whitefield (Whitefield, George), who later became a great preacher of the Evangelical (Evangelical church) revival in Great Britain and North America, persuaded Wesley to go to the unchurched masses. Wesley gathered converts into societies for continuing fellowship and spiritual growth, and he was asked by a London group to become their leader. Soon other such groups were formed in London, Bristol, and elsewhere. To avoid the scandal of unworthy members, Wesley published, in 1743, Rules for the Methodist societies. To promote new societies he became a widely travelled itinerant preacher. Because most ordained clergymen did not favour his approach, Wesley was compelled to seek the services of dedicated laymen, who also became itinerant preachers and helped administer the Methodist societies.

      Many of Wesley's preachers had gone to the American colonies, but after the American Revolution most returned to England. Because the Bishop of London would not ordain some of his preachers to serve in the United States, Wesley took it upon himself, in 1784, to do so. In the same year he pointed out that his societies operated independently of any control by the Church of England.

      Toward the end of his life, Wesley became an honoured figure in the British Isles.

Additional Reading
An extensive bibliography of the writings of John and Charles Wesley may be found in Frank Baker, A Union Catalogue of the Publications of John and Charles Wesley (1966). Selections include John Pearce, The Wesleys in Cornwall (1964), extracts from their journals; Hugh Martin (ed.), Selections from the Journal of John Wesley (1955); and Albert C. Outler (ed.), John Wesley, 2nd ed. (1970). The standard life is by J.S. Simon, 5 vol. (1921–34). More recent biographies are C.E. Vulliamy, John Wesley, 3rd ed. (1954); and Martin Schmidt, John Wesley: A Theological Biography, 2 vol. (Eng. trans., 1962–71).

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Universalium. 2010.

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