Versailles, Palace of

Versailles, Palace of
Baroque palace southwest of Paris built chiefly under Louis XIV.

It was the principal residence of the French kings and the seat of government from 1682 to 1789, with some 1,000 courtiers and 4,000 attendants residing there. Originally a hunting lodge, it was enlarged by Louis XIII and Louis XIV. Louis Le Vau (1612–70), with Charles Le Brun and André Le Nôtre, began work on the palace in the 1660s. A masterpiece of formal grandeur intended as the visible expression of the glory of France, Versailles became the palatial ideal throughout Europe and the Americas. Le Nôtre's inventive arrangement of earth forms, plantings, and fountains created vistas, terraces, formal gardens, and wooded areas that celebrated the delights of both open and intimate space. After Le Vau's death, Jules Hardouin-Mansart (1646–1708) was commissioned to triple the size of the palace and built the northern and southern wings, the Orangerie, and the Grand Trianon. Later additions include the Classically restrained Petit Trianon, built 1761–64 for Louis XV and Madame de Pompadour. The first scenes of the French Revolution were enacted at Versailles, which had become a symbol of royal extravagance. In 1837 Louis-Philippe restored the palace and turned it into a museum.

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former French royal residence and centre of government, now a national landmark. It is located in the city of Versailles, Yvelines département, Île-de-France région, northern France, 10 miles (16 km) west-southwest of Paris. As the centre of the French court, Versailles was one of the grandest theatres of European absolutism (Europe, history of).

      The original residence, built from 1631 to 1634, was primarily a hunting lodge and private retreat for Louis XIII (reigned 1610–43) and his family. Under the guidance of Louis XIV (1643–1715), it was transformed (1661–1710) into an immense and extravagant complex surrounded by stylized English and French gardens; every detail of its construction glorified the king. The additions were designed by such renowned architects as Jules Hardouin-Mansart (Mansart, Jules Hardouin-), Robert de Cotte (Cotte, Robert de), and Louis Le Vau. Charles Le Brun (Le Brun, Charles) oversaw the interior decoration. Landscape artist André Le Nôtre (Le Nôtre, André) created symmetrical French gardens that included ornate fountains with “magically” still water, expressing the power of humanity—and, specifically, the king—over nature.

 Declared the official royal residence in 1682 and the official residence of the court of France on May 6, 1682, the Palace of Versailles was abandoned after the death of Louis XIV in 1715. In 1722, however, it was returned to its status as royal residence. Further additions were made during the reigns of Louis XV (1715–74) and Louis XVI (1774–92). Following the French Revolution (France) of 1789, the complex was nearly destroyed; it was subsequently restored by Louis-Philippe (1830–48), but its utility gradually decreased. By the 20th century, though it was occasionally used for plenary congresses of the French parliament or as housing for visiting heads of state, the primary utility of the palace lay in tourism.

 Among the most famous rooms in the palace are the Galerie des Glaces (Hall of Mirrors; 1678–89) and the other Grands Appartements (State Rooms). The former is characterized by 17 wide, arcaded mirrors opposite 17 windows; glass chandeliers hang from its arched, ornately painted ceiling, and gilded statues and reliefs border its walls. The hall is flanked on opposite ends by the equally striking Salon de la Paix (Salon of Peace) and Salon de la Guerre (Salon of War). It was in the Galerie des Glaces that the Treaty of Versailles (Versailles, Treaty of) was signed by the Allies and Germany in 1919. Other important sites are the Grand Trianon (1678–88) and the late 18th-century Petit Trianon, which were built as private residences for the royal family and special guests. The Museum of French History, founded in 1837 during the period of restoration overseen by Louis-Philippe, was consecrated “to all the glories of France”; however, its 6,000 paintings and 2,000 sculptures are largely closed to the public.

      UNESCO designated the palace and its gardens a World Heritage site in 1979. Following a devastating winter storm in 1989, which destroyed more than 1,000 trees on the palace grounds, the French government initiated a wide-ranging project of repair and renovation. A severe windstorm in 1999 caused the loss of some 10,000 trees, including several planted by Marie Antoinette and Napoleon Bonaparte. The chateau was also damaged. In the late 1990s some nine million people visited the palace annually.

Additional Reading
Guy Walton, Louis XIV's Versailles (1986), covers the history and architecture of the palace. Jean-Marie Pérouse de Montclos and Robert Polidori, Versailles (1991; originally published in French, 1991), a well-illustrated work, covers the gardens and the buildings. The gardens in particular are the subject of Pierre-André Lablaude, The Gardens of Versailles (1995; originally published in French, 1995), tracing the development of the gardens from Louis XII to Louis XVI; and Stéphane Pincas, Versailles: The History of the Gardens and Their Sculpture (1996; originally published in French, 1995).

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Universalium. 2010.

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