- Valdivia, Pedro de
died January 1554, Tucapel, Viceroyalty of PeruSpanish conquistador.After serving with the Spanish army in Italy and Flanders, he was sent to South America in 1534, where he served under Francisco Pizarro in Peru. In 1540 he led an expedition of 150 Spaniards into Chile, where he defeated a large force of Indians and founded Santiago in 1541. He extended Spanish rule south to the Bío-Bío River in 1546, fought again in Peru (1546–48), and returned to Chile as governor in 1549. He began to conquer Chile south of the Bío-Bío and founded Concepción in 1550. He was killed in a campaign against the Araucanian Indians.
* * *▪ Spanish conquerorborn c. 1498, Extremadura, Spaindied January 1554, Tucapel, Viceroyalty of Peru [now in Chile]Valdivia served with distinction in the Spanish army in Italy and Flanders before being sent to South America in 1534. During the Peruvian civil war (1538), he fought with Francisco Pizarro against Diego de Almagro. For the Chilean expedition, Valdivia took charge (1540) of a force of 150 Spaniards (including his mistress, Inés Suárez) and some Indian allies. He marched across the coastal desert of northern Chile, defeated a large force of Indians in the valley of Chile, and, on Feb. 12, 1541, founded Santiago. In 1546 he extended Spanish rule south to the Bío-Bío River. After fighting in Peru for two years, Valdivia returned to Chile as governor. In 1550 he began to conquer Chile south of the Bío-Bío and founded the city of Concepción. In the course of a campaign directed against the Araucanian Indians, Valdivia was captured and executed by Lautaro, a Mapuche Indian who led the native uprising against the Spanish conquerors.
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