Tel Aviv–Yafo

Tel Aviv–Yafo
or Tel Aviv–Jaffa

City (pop., 1999 est.: 348,100) and main port of Israel.

The hub of Israel's largest urban centre, it was formed in 1950 by the incorporation of the ancient port of Jaffa with Tel Aviv, its former suburb. Tel Aviv was founded in 1909 and was the capital of Israel (1948–50). It grew with Jewish immigration in the early 20th century and by 1936 was the largest and most important city in Palestine. Jaffa was an old Canaanite city that was taken by Egypt in the 15th century BC and occupied by the Israelite kings David and Solomon. Over the centuries it was ruled by the Ptolemies, Syrians, and Romans, captured by the Crusaders, and razed by the Mamlūks. The British occupied it in 1917; it surrendered to Jewish military forces during the first Arab-Israeli war (1948). Israel's main business, communications, and cultural centre, it is the site of more than half of Israel's industrial plants, the country's stock exchange, Tel Aviv University (1953), and Bar-Ilan University (1953).

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Yafo also spelled  Jaffa  or  Joppa , Arabic  Yāfa  
  major city and economic centre in Israel, situated on the Mediterranean (Mediterranean Sea) coast some 40 miles (60 km) northwest of Jerusalem. Tel Aviv was founded in 1909 as a Jewish garden suburb of the ancient Mediterranean port of Jaffa (now Yafo), with which it was joined in 1950. By the beginning of the 21st century, the modern city of Tel Aviv had developed into a major economic and cultural centre. Tel Aviv is headquarters for a number of government ministries, including the Ministry of Defense, as well as other public organizations such as the Histadrut (General Federation of Labour); most of the foreign embassies in Israel are also located in the city. In addition, most of Israel's large corporations are headquartered in Tel Aviv.

      Tel Aviv's rapid growth and emergence as a prominent centre was largely due to its advantageous location. Proximity to the old city of Jaffa (whose port served as the gateway to Jerusalem, farther inland) and a Jewish rural-agricultural hinterland were important in Tel Aviv's early stages, as was its status as the first modern Jewish city in Palestine. In the mid-1930s Tel Aviv surpassed Jerusalem as the largest city in Palestine (after 1948, the State of Israel). In the mid-1970s, however, Jerusalem exceeded Tel Aviv, which continues to be the country's second largest city. Tel Aviv forms the core of Israel's largest metropolitan area, representing more than two-fifths of Israel's population. Despite some decrease in its share of Israel's population, the economic and cultural prominence of the Tel Aviv metropolitan area continue to grow. Area city, 20 square miles (52 square km); metropolitan area, 586 square miles (1,518 square km). Pop. (2006 est.) city, 384,400; metropolitan area, 3,098,400.

Character of the city
      Tel Aviv's character is frequently contrasted to that of Jerusalem. Tel Aviv is depicted as the city “that never stops,” a thriving, vibrant, modern, dynamic, and multicultural city, one generally characterized as tolerant, secular, and liberal, while also materialistic and hedonistic—a city of the present, lacking deep historical roots. Jerusalem, by contrast, is seen as eternal and holy, conservative, and an arena for major conflicts within Israeli society, including that between Israelis and Palestinians. It has been said by some that “while Jerusalem prays, Tel Aviv plays.”

      In the past Tel Aviv was negatively portrayed as a city that lacked character and was unpleasantly humid, ugly, and prematurely aging, with decaying buildings covered in peeling stucco and small business blocks of stained concrete. However, these representations lost much ground during the last quarter of the 20th century, partly the result of substantial beautification efforts—the most significant of which included a new orientation toward the beach, an area that had decayed for decades. Whereas past perceptions marked Tel Aviv as the stronghold of the non-pioneering segment of Israeli society, later views have come to acknowledge Tel Aviv's importance as the engine of the Israeli economy, and its rich cultural and entertainment amenities have been increasingly appreciated. Emerging civic pride has been based on the quality of life offered in the city and its metropolitan area.

City site
 Tel Aviv is located on Israel's central coastal plain along about 9 miles (15 km) of shoreline. The old city of Jaffa is situated on a promontory bounded by the Mediterranean coastline to the west and north; its small bay was the location of a port in ancient times. Sand dunes and marshy areas made access difficult from the south and southeast. Lying northeast of Yafo, Tel Aviv is built over three low ridges of soft sandstone hills that run almost parallel to the coastline. A narrow belt of small sand dunes covering the westernmost of these ridges expands inland where gaps in the relief occur. More sandstone ridges lie to the east, and the suburban, built-up area now spreads beyond them into the rich agricultural land of the coastal plain. The Yarqon (Yarqon River) (Yarkon) River bounds the central part of Tel Aviv to the north. The river was severely polluted by sewage and other waste during the latter half of the 20th century, and cleanup efforts since the 1990s have worked to rehabilitate the Yarqon and draw recreation back to its banks. Ayalon Stream—dry for much of the year, though it has caused floods in the past—flows northward to the Yarqon; it delimits central Tel Aviv to the east and forms a canal in the median of the Netivei Ayalon, a freeway that cuts through Tel Aviv from south to north. A portion of the Tel Aviv–Yafo municipality extends east of the Ayalon, and a larger part extends north of the Yarqon River.

      Tel Aviv has a typical Mediterranean climate with distinct summer and winter seasons and less distinct intermediate seasons. The weather is mild, with no major natural hazards. The long summers are warm and humid and are without rain. Temperatures in August, the warmest month, reach an average maximum of 86 °F (30 °C) and an average minimum of 75 °F (24 °C); temperatures exceeding 95 °F (35 °C) are rare owing to the moderating effect of the sea. Winters are cool and pleasant, with temperatures in January, the coolest month, averaging a maximum of 64 °F (18 °C) and a minimum of 50 °F (10 °C), with temperatures seldom falling below 41 °F (5 °C). Precipitation is largely confined to winter months (primarily November to March), with the mean annual precipitation averaging about 21 inches (530 mm). Snow is an unusual occurrence in Tel Aviv, which experienced only one significant snowfall in the 20th century.

City layout
 Tel Aviv lacks remarkable natural features and historically was not renowned for its architecture. Typical buildings in neighbourhoods throughout the metropolitan area have been three- and four-story flat-roofed apartment houses of concrete and cement brick, covered in stucco and standing on narrow pillars with a small green space or parking lot. However, Tel Aviv's architectural heritage has been increasingly acknowledged since the late 20th century, and its aesthetics and architectural variety have attracted greater appreciation. Some of Tel Aviv's most significant architectural heritage consists of buildings from the 1930s and '40s, designed in the International Style, which was influenced by the Bauhaus school; Tel Aviv is considered to have the greatest concentration of such buildings worldwide. The White City, as about 4,000 such buildings are collectively known, was constructed in Tel Aviv by European-trained architects between the early 1930s and the late '40s and was based on the urban plan of Scottish sociologist Sir Patrick Geddes (Geddes, Sir Patrick). The White City's simple, functional style has become renowned for its consideration of the culture, climate, and needs of its inhabitants. The White City was designated a UNESCO World Heritage site in 2003.

      High-rise construction largely commenced during the 1960s. Tel Aviv's first skyscraper, Shalom Meir Tower, which contains more than 30 floors and stands 466 feet (142 metres) tall, was built in 1965 on the site of the demolished Herzliya High School at the heart of Tel Aviv's original core neighbourhood. Commercial and residential high-rises have been built in subsequent decades throughout the central part of the city. A concentration of skyscrapers evolved in the Diamond Exchange area in Ramat Gan, across the municipal boundary to the east. The Azrieli Centre's group of three towers—one circular, one triangular, and one square—stand along the Netivei Ayalon freeway in Tel Aviv and have become landmarks of the city's skyline.

      Over time, Tel Aviv's central business district has progressed steadily northward from the historical nucleus of Herzl Street. The district first moved to Allenby Street, which was eventually regarded as the old central business district after its decline in the second half of the 20th century, though it remained the location of the headquarters of Israel's major banks. Upscale fashion shops, restaurants, and entertainment venues, however, moved farther north to Dizengoff Street, whose prominent feature was Dizengoff Square, a circular plaza and Tel Aviv focal point after its establishment in the 1930s. Dizengoff Street has gradually declined since the 1970s; some upscale shops moved to locations such as Hamedina Square (Kikar Ha-Medinah) farther north, but the main reason for the transformation has been linked to the rise of shopping malls (shopping centre). The first mall, Dizengoff Centre, opened in the late 1970s within the central business district, but initially it experienced difficulties. Kanyon Ayalon, the area's first shopping mall to follow the North American model, opened in the inner suburb of Ramat Gan in the mid-1980s; a significant success, it was followed by the establishment of numerous suburban shopping malls, big-box retailers (such as warehouse clubs), and power centres (a variation on the strip mall involving a collection of retailers on a single property). Two large shopping malls, the Azrieli Mall and the Ramat Aviv, were established within the city of Tel Aviv.

      From the 1970s the proportion of people employed within the city centre began a trend of steady decrease as many businesses began favouring the city's outer rings. Like the shops, office concentrations also largely shifted out of the central business district, many of these at first moving to the upscale residential inner north. The municipality building was also built in that area, adjacent to Yitzhak Rabin Square, a centre of public demonstrations and diverse cultural events and the site of Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin (Rabin, Yitzhak)'s assassination in 1995. Attempts to expand office development near the coast north of Yafo were largely unsuccessful because of the region's proximity to low-status areas as well as its inferior accessibility. Instead, the area adjacent to the Netivei Ayalon freeway proved to be a successful magnet for office development, in part because of the freeway, which passes along the edge of central Tel Aviv and provides superior accessibility. Tel Aviv was late to acknowledge this potential; as a result, much of this development took place in nearby Ramat Gan. Suburbanization of office space has been slower than that of retail space, with no real “edge cities” evolving until the beginning of the 21st century.

      A manufacturing belt first evolved in the low-lying areas northeast of Yafo and near the Ayalon Stream. Manufacturing decentralized early and extensively. High-technology enterprises later developed in northern Tel Aviv, with major concentrations of high-technology industries developing in suburbs such as Herzliyya and Nes Ziyyona.

      A run-down, deteriorating neighbourhood until the 1960s, old Yafo and its harbour have since been developed into a tourist enclave. In the early 1980s, following years of neglect, the promenade along the Tel Aviv beach was rebuilt, and a line of high-rise hotels was constructed along the coast; these waterfront features have become landmarks and the hub of the city's tourist activity. Parks, public gardens, and groves dot Tel Aviv's municipal area; they vary in size and accessibility across the city, as parts of the north generally have more open public space per resident than do the city centre and the south. The main park areas are located near the Yarqon River, including Ha-Yarqon (Hayarkon) Park; the Israel Trade Fairs and Convention Center at the Exhibition Grounds—one of Israel's largest exhibition centres—stands adjacent to this park. Other large parks, including Wolfson Park and Begin Park, are located in the south. Some of the suburbs are better endowed with green space, including the Raʿananna Park as well as the National Park in Ramat Gan. Adjacent to the National Park is the Safari, Israel's largest zoo, which at the beginning of the 21st century housed one of the Middle East's largest animal collections.

      At the beginning of the 20th century about 40,000 inhabitants, roughly four-fifths Arab, resided in Jaffa. Tel Aviv's population, by contrast, numbered approximately 1,500 in 1914 and was almost wholly Jewish. It enjoyed substantial growth after World War I, tripling over a period of six years during the 1930s to 150,000 inhabitants. Jaffa's population grew more slowly but reached about 100,000 in 1947, with Jews representing roughly one-third of the population. Since the cities' amalgamation in 1950, the population of Tel Aviv–Yafo has fluctuated; it reached a peak in the 1960s and then declined gradually until the 1980s. The population expanded again in the early 1990s because of the influx of immigrants from the former Soviet Union and stabilized in the mid-1990s at about 350,000 inhabitants, though it is thought that non-Jewish foreign workers may be undercounted. During the intifāḍah (Palestine) (Arabic: “shaking off”) and subsequent terror attacks in the 1990s, the number of both legal and illegal foreign workers in Tel Aviv grew markedly as the Arab workforce from the West Bank and the Gaza Strip became more scarce, in part because of border closures and bans on Palestinian employment.

      Jews represent the vast majority of Tel Aviv's population. Tel Aviv's Jewish populace is considered to be largely secular, although a significant minority is religious. Arabs—mainly Muslims, as well as a number of Christians—account for a very small fraction of the population. The city's population is substantially more affluent than the national average, and the size of its average household is typically smaller. The city has a rather high proportion of both elderly residents and single-parent families compared with the Israeli and metropolitan averages. Low natural increase and negative migration balance account for the modest population growth in the city proper. Nevertheless, the larger metropolitan area has grown rapidly and continuously, both in area and in population. It is predominantly Jewish, with Arabs representing less than 5 percent of the population.

      Tel Aviv's social geography is characterized by its north-south divide. The wealthiest neighbourhoods are situated north of the Yarqon River, but the “old north” (south of the Yarqon; previously the northern edge of the city, before it expanded beyond the river) is also upscale. The poorest neighbourhoods are largely located in the south, although some areas have gentrified. The Ha-Tiqwa (Hatikva) neighbourhood and Kefar Shalem, the former Arab village of Salamah, are among the more impoverished neighbourhoods, largely inhabited by Jews originating from Arabic-speaking countries. Parts of the inner south have developed into enclaves of mostly poor foreign workers. The poor Arab community is concentrated in parts of Yafo. Population densities in Tel Aviv, though high on the whole, are lower than those in many European cities, in part because the city's buildings do not form continuous rows along the streets.

 The north-south divide is also evident in the suburbs, which, although largely middle class, are still heterogeneous; these range from the small, wealthy suburb of Savyon to the poorer cities of Lod and Ramla, from the highly religious Jewish city of Bene Beraq to Arab centres, as well as areas populated largely by immigrants from the former Soviet Union. To the east and south, Tel Aviv blends into a continuous built-up area, including the cities of Ramat Gan, Givʿatayim, Bene Beraq, Bat Yam, and Holon (olon). Major outer suburbs include Herzliyya and Netanya to the north, Petaḥ Tiqwa and Modiʿin to the east, and Rishon LeẒiyyon (Rishon LeẔiyyon) and Ashdod to the south. Rural settlements in the vicinity of Tel Aviv, including cooperative agricultural settlements such as kibbutzim (kibbutz) and moshavim (moshav), are also becoming increasingly suburbanized, and the expanding Tel Aviv metropolis continues to approach the fringe areas of the Jerusalem and Haifa metropolitan areas.

      Tel Aviv forms the core of Israel's postindustrial, globally oriented economy. Its dominance in Israel's economic life is made clearly evident by the fact that, although only a small fraction of Israel's population resides in Tel Aviv, almost one-sixth of all jobs in Israel are located in the city. Furthermore, some two-fifths of all the country's jobs in banking, insurance, and finance—the city's leading sectors—are located in Tel Aviv. Nearly all banks and insurance companies operating in the country are headquartered in the city, and Israel's only stock exchange is located there as well.

      Greater Tel Aviv is a leading centre of retail and wholesale trade, and, though tourism is a significant sector, Tel Aviv is not Israel's prime tourist destination. The manufacturing sector has declined because of suburbanization and dispersal to peripheral regions; however, Greater Tel Aviv has retained a role as a thriving, innovative, high-technology industrial centre of substantial global significance.

      As Israel's major transportation hub, Tel Aviv largely depends on motor vehicle transportation, including an extensive bus system. Commuters are increasingly served by a system of suburban trains, and plans for a light-rail system have progressed. Israel's main international airport is located in Tel Aviv's southeastern vicinity, and the important port of Ashdod is located on the southern edge of the Tel Aviv metropolitan area.

      Attempts to promote the dispersal of population and industry toward peripheral regions and to curb the expansion of the Tel Aviv metropolis have had only limited effects. Some movement has occurred, but much of it has been little more than the spread of suburbanization into new rings of the expanding metropolitan area; the metropolitan region on the whole continues to be a magnet for leading economic activities, innovation, and entrepreneurship.

Administration and society
      The Tel Aviv metropolitan area includes about 70 local authorities, each of which is governed by a mayor and council elected for a five-year term. The metropolitan area lacks formal coordination among its local authorities, although limited collaboration exists, particularly the organization that oversees sewage disposal. Some of Israel's most renowned hospitals are located in Greater Tel Aviv. The area is also home to several universities. Located in the northern part of the city is Tel Aviv University (founded 1953). Two other leading institutes of higher education in Greater Tel Aviv are Bar-Ilan University (founded 1953), a religious university in Ramat Gan, and the Weizmann Institute of Science (founded 1949) in Rehovot (Reḥovot). A large number of new colleges, many of them private, have been established in Greater Tel Aviv since the 1980s.

Cultural life
      As Israel's most prominent centre of culture and entertainment, Tel Aviv is home to most of the country's theatres, including the Habima National Theatre, as well as the Israel Philharmonic Orchestra, the New Israeli Opera (housed in the Tel Aviv Performing Arts Centre), and most of Israel's dance companies. More than one-third of all performances and exhibitions in Israel are held in Tel Aviv, and the city hosts three of Israel's eight largest museums: the Eretz Israel (Land of Israel) Museum, with its diverse collections in archaeology, Judaica, ethnography, and material culture; the Tel Aviv Museum of Art, exhibiting Israeli as well as American and European works; and the Diaspora Museum, devoted to the history of the Jewish people in the Diaspora. Tel Aviv is also an important communications hub: the majority of Israel's newspapers—including Haʾaretz (“The Land”), Maʿariv (“Evening Prayer”), and Yedioth Aharonoth (Yediʿot Aḥaronot, “Latest News”)—and periodicals are published in the city, and it is also the location of most publishing houses, the armed forces broadcasting facilities, and radio and television studios.

      Tel Aviv has several sporting arenas. Israel's principal athletic stadium, the National Stadium, with a capacity of more than 40,000, is located in nearby Ramat Gan; the largest football (soccer) stadium in Tel Aviv is Bloomfield Stadium, which has a seating capacity of about 16,500. The country's largest basketball arena is also in Tel Aviv and is host to Maccabi Tel Aviv, the dominant Israeli basketball team and winner of many national championships and a number of European titles. The city's major football teams, Hapoel Tel Aviv and Maccabi Tel Aviv, as well as several other teams, usually play in Israel's premier league.

      An old Canaanite city, Jaffa was taken by Thuti, general of Thutmose III of Egypt, in the 15th century BCE and became a provincial capital during the Egyptian New Kingdom (Egypt, ancient). The Israelite kings David and Solomon occupied it, the latter using it as the port for landing Lebanon timber that floated down the coast from Tyre. Later Jaffa was ruled by the Persians, but by about 350 BCE it is recorded as independent. After Alexander the Great's conquest, the Ptolemies held it. In 68 CE the Roman emperor Vespasian captured it on his way to Jerusalem; by that time the superior artificial harbour and port city of Caesarea to the north was already bringing decline to Jaffa, which, by comparison, was an inadequate port. The Crusaders captured the city in 1126 but lost it to Saladin in 1187. In 1191 it was recaptured by Richard I of England, but by 1197 it had been retaken by Saladin's brother, al-Malik al-ʿĀdil (honorific: Sayf al-Dīn, “Sword of the Faith”). Jaffa was razed by the Mamlūks (Mamlūk) of Egypt in 1345 because of a threatened new Crusade, but, toward the end of the 17th century, it began to develop again as a seaport.

 During the course of the 19th century, Jaffa grew from a tiny town into the region's most important port and, after Jerusalem, the second most important city. Surrounded by productive agricultural hinterland, Jaffa was enhanced by its location on the junction of the coastal road and the road to Jerusalem, allowing it to serve as both an important hub for the export of citrus fruit and the gateway for pilgrims to Jerusalem and to the larger Holy Land. With the start of Jewish (Jew)-Zionist immigration, Jaffa became the cultural and educational centre of the immigrant population and included two Jewish neighbourhoods, Newe Ẓedeq and Newe Shalom, which were established in northern Jaffa in the late 19th century.

      Tel Aviv was founded in 1909 as a Jewish suburb of the mainly Arab Jaffa. It was named for Theodor Herzl (Herzl, Theodor)'s novel Altneuland (1902), translated into Hebrew as Tel Aviv (“Spring Hill”), in which Herzl, the founder of the political form of Zionism, put forth his ideas for a new Jewish state. The name also has a biblical association, having been mentioned in the Book of Ezekiel (Ezekiel, The Book of) as a settlement of exiled Jews in Babylonia (see Babylonian Exile). Tel Aviv's founders were mainly middle-class immigrants who set out to build a European-style suburb with straight, wide streets, parks, and modern urban infrastructure and services. The new suburb was to be run by an elected autonomous local council, although nominally it was part of Jaffa. In 1917 the entire population of Tel Aviv and the Jewish population of nearby Jaffa were expelled northward by the Turkish military authorities, who suspected their sympathies were with the advancing British army. The city's residents returned home in late 1917, after Jaffa and Tel Aviv were taken by the British.

      Growth during the period of the British mandate (Palestine) in Palestine was largely influenced by waves of Jewish immigration into Palestine and by rounds of violence between Arabs and Jews. Substantial levels of Jewish immigration led to rapid population growth and construction booms; middle-class immigrants from Poland and Germany arriving with capital were particularly prominent in these waves. Violent exchanges between Arabs and Jews in 1921, 1929, and 1936–39 led to an increasing separation between the two populations. The anti-Jewish riots of 1921, in which Arabs attacked the Jewish population of Jaffa, led thousands of Jews to leave the city for Tel Aviv, prompting most Jewish businesses to move there as well. Separation between Arabs and Jews was virtually completed in 1936–39 when a general strike in the port of Jaffa led to the establishment of a separate port in Tel Aviv. Tel Aviv was granted township status in 1921 and full municipal (city) status in 1934, with Meir Dizengoff serving as the city's first mayor.

      Tel Aviv's status as the first urban territory in Palestine managed by Jews contributed to its appeal to Jewish immigrants in the 1920s and '30s. It was in this period that Tel Aviv emerged as the economic, cultural, political, and military centre of the Jewish population in Palestine. Theatres were established, many important writers took up residence in the city, and the first trade fair took place in the early 1930s. The historical nucleus of Tel Aviv developed into a thriving business centre. By 1933 the population of Tel Aviv surpassed that of Jaffa, then an Arab economic core and one of the largest Arab communities in Palestine, to become Palestine's largest and most important city.

      According to the United Nations' 1947 resolution on the partition of Palestine, Jaffa was meant to remain an Arab enclave within the Jewish state. However, in May of 1948, days prior to Israel's declaration of independence and the beginning of the Arab-Israeli wars, the Jewish military forces of the Haganah and Irgun Zvai Leumi took control of Jaffa, and the Arab-majority population of about 65,000 fled. Jewish immigrants soon settled in the largely deserted city. Jaffa was amalgamated with Tel Aviv in 1950, and the united municipality became officially known as Tel Aviv–Yafo. Tel Aviv's municipal boundaries were further expanded to encompass several Arab villages and a number of Jewish neighbourhoods; additional land north of the Yarqon River was annexed in the 1950s. The city's growth dwindled when no more land could be annexed and public construction projects for the absorption of immigrants were moved to locations outside the city, where land prices were cheaper. Port operations in Yafo and Tel Aviv harbours ceased upon the inauguration of the modern port in nearby Ashdod in 1965. Shlomo Lahat, the prominent Tel Aviv mayor who governed the city between 1974 and 1993, initiated large-scale development projects at great expense in order to boost the image of Tel Aviv and the quality of life in the city.

      In the turbulent 1990s, Tel Aviv experienced renewed growth and economic restructuring, as well as security problems associated with the Israeli-Arab conflict and peace process. During these years, absorption of immigrants from the former Soviet Union, an influx of foreign workers, and the gentrification of older parts of central Tel Aviv led to a modest growth in population. Greater Tel Aviv benefitted substantially from the renewed and rapid growth of the Israeli economy. The city acted as the hub for foreign investors entering the Israeli economy in that decade and served as the crux of the real estate boom and of the proliferation of high-technology start-ups. However, Tel Aviv suffered a number of violent attacks; among them were Iraqi missile assaults during the Persian Gulf War (in 1991; causing more panic than damage) as well as several terrorist attacks (including those in 1996, 2001, 2003, and 2006) that accompanied the collapse of the peace process associated with the Oslo Accords (Israel). The renewed conflict contributed in part to a significant economic downturn in the early 21st century that was further exacerbated by a global crisis in high-technology industries. However, Tel Aviv's economy soon recovered, and the city witnessed a real estate boom. Tel Aviv and its metropolitan area have continued to draw talent and economic and cultural focus from other parts of Israel, leading to raised concerns of an unprecedented level of polarization.

Eran Razin

Additional Reading
There is a scarcity of books published in English on Tel Aviv–Yafo. Joachim Schlör, Tel Aviv: From Dream to City (1999; originally published in German, 1996), presents an English-language account of Tel Aviv from the perspective of a cultural historian, emphasizing the years prior to 1948. Cultural studies of Tel Aviv include Maoz Azaryahu, Tel Aviv: Mythography of a City (2007); and Barbara E. Mann, A Place in History: Modernism, Tel Aviv, and the Creation of Jewish Urban Space, 2nd ed. (2006). Various aspects of Tel Aviv's social history are treated in academic publications—for example, Gila Menahem, “Jews, Arabs, Russians, and Foreigners in an Israeli City: Ethnic Divisions and the Restructuring Economy of Tel Aviv, 1983–96,” International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 24(3):634–652 (September 2000). Tel Aviv's economy in an era of globalization is explored in Daniel Felsenstein, Eike Schamp, and Arie Shachar (eds.), Emerging Nodes in a Global Economy: Frankfurt and Tel Aviv Compared (2002). The annual Tel Aviv–Yafo municipal yearbook, Shenaton sṭaṭisṭi, is the best source for statistical information.Eran Razin

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Universalium. 2010.

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