Smeaton, John

Smeaton, John
born June 8, 1724, Austhorpe, Yorkshire, Eng.
died Oct. 28, 1792, Austhorpe

British civil engineer.

In 1756–59 he rebuilt the Eddystone Lighthouse (off Plymouth), during which he rediscovered hydraulic cement (lost since the fall of Rome) as the best mortar for underwater construction. He constructed the great Forth and Clyde Canal in Scotland; built bridges at Perth, Banff, and Coldstream; and completed the harbour at Ramsgate, Kent. He was a leader in the transition from wind-and-water to steam power; with his improvements, Thomas Newcomen's atmospheric steam engine achieved its maximum performance. He designed atmospheric pumping engines for collieries, mines, and docks. In 1771 he founded the British Society of Civil Engineers (now the Smeatonian Society). He is regarded as the founder of the civil engineering profession in Britain.

* * *

▪ British engineer

born June 8, 1724, Austhorpe, Yorkshire, Eng.
died Oct. 28, 1792, Austhorpe
 English engineer noted for his all-masonry lighthouse on Eddystone reef off Plymouth, Devon, and as the founder of the civil-engineering profession in Great Britain.

      Smeaton learned mathematical instrument making in London, where his scientific papers led to his election to the Royal Society in 1753. Smeaton visited the Low Countries during 1754, studying canals, harbours, and mills; the tour was the turning point in his career. In 1756–59 he built the third Eddystone Lighthouse, using dovetailed blocks of portland stone to withstand the pounding of the waves; this technique became standard for such wave-swept structures. While planning the lighthouse, he discovered the best mortar for underwater construction to be limestone with a high proportion of clay, and thus he was the first to recognize what constitutes a hydraulic lime.

      Smeaton also constructed the Forth and Clyde Canal in Scotland, which opened a waterway between the Atlantic and the North Sea; built bridges at Perth, Banff, and Coldstream, Scot.; and completed the harbour at Ramsgate, Kent.

      Smeaton took a leading part in the transition from wind-and-water to steam power. He introduced cast-iron shafts and gearing into windmills and water mills, receiving the Royal Society's Copley Medal for An Experimental Enquiry Concerning the Natural Powers of Water and Wind to Turn Mills (1759).

      Owing to his improvements, the Newcomen atmospheric steam engine achieved its maximum performance. He designed large atmospheric pumping engines for Long Benton colliery in Northumberland, Chacewater mine in Cornwall, and the docks of Kronshtadt in Russia. He also improved the safety of the diving bell by fitting an air pump to the bell.

      Smeaton founded the Society of Civil Engineers in 1771. In 1791 he wrote Narrative of the Building . . . of the Eddystone Lighthouse.

* * *

Universalium. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Нужно сделать НИР?

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Smeaton, John — (8 jun. 1724, Austhorpe, Yorkshire, Inglaterra–28 oct. 1792, Austhorpe). Ingeniero civil británico. Entre 1756 y 1759 reconstruyó el faro de Eddystone (frente a Plymouth), durante lo cual redescubrió el cemento hidráulico (que se había perdido… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • SMEATON, JOHN —    civil engineer, born near Leeds; began life as a mathematical instrument maker; made improvements in mill work, and gained the Copley Medal in 1758; visited the principal engineering works in Holland and Belgium; was entrusted with the… …   The Nuttall Encyclopaedia

  • Smeaton — John Smeaton (* 8. Juni 1724 in Austhorpe bei Leeds; † 28. Oktober 1792) war ein Ingenieur und gilt als der Vater des Bauingenieurwesens. Portrait von John Smeaton, im Hintergrund der Eddystone Leuchtturm. Inhaltsverzeichnis …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • John Smeaton — (8 juin 1724 28 octobre 1792) est un ingénieur britannique, souvent surnommé le père du génie civil britannique dans la littérature anglo saxonne,il est réputé pour sa dextérité et son sens de l analyse. Il est responsable de la construction de… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • John Smeaton — This article is about the 18th century civil engineer. For the baggage handler involved in the 2007 Glasgow International Airport attack, see John Smeaton (baggage handler) Infobox Person name = John Smeaton image size = 150px caption =Portrait… …   Wikipedia

  • SMEATON — UNITED KINGDOM (see also List of Individuals) 8.6.1724 Austhorpe/UK 28.10.1792 Austhorpe/UK John Smeaton was taken into apprenticeship by a designer of scientific instruments in London. From 1752, Smeaton submitted three papers to the Royal… …   Hydraulicians in Europe 1800-2000

  • john — /jon/, n. Slang. 1. a toilet or bathroom. 2. (sometimes cap.) a fellow; guy. 3. (sometimes cap.) a prostitute s customer. [generic use of the proper name] * * * I known as John Lackland born Dec. 24, 1167, Oxford, Eng. died Oct. 18/19, 1216,… …   Universalium

  • John — /jon/, n. 1. the apostle John, believed to be the author of the fourth Gospel, three Epistles, and the book of Revelation. 2. See John the Baptist. 3. (John Lackland) 1167? 1216, king of England 1199 1216; signer of the Magna Carta 1215 (son of… …   Universalium

  • Smeaton (surname) — Smeaton is a surname, and may refer to:* Professor Alan Smeaton, Irish author and academic * Bruce Smeaton, Australian composer * Cooper Smeaton, Canadian professional ice hockey referee and coach * John Smeaton (1724 – 1792), English civil… …   Wikipedia

  • John Dollond — Born 21 June 1706(1706 06 21) …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”