Simpson, George Gaylord

Simpson, George Gaylord
born June 16, 1902, Chicago, Ill., U.S.
died Oct. 6, 1984, Tucson, Ariz.

U.S. paleontologist.

He earned a doctorate at Yale University. His contributions to evolutionary theory include a detailed classification of mammals, based on his studies of mammalian evolution, which is still the standard. He also is known for his studies of intercontinental migrations of animal species, especially South American mammals, in past geologic times. His books include Tempo and Mode in Evolution (1944; 1984), The Meaning of Evolution (1949), The Major Features of Evolution (1953), and The Principles of Animal Taxonomy (1961).

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▪ American paleontologist
born June 16, 1902, Chicago
died Oct. 6, 1984, Tucson, Ariz.

      U.S. paleontologist known for his contributions to evolutionary theory and to the understanding of intercontinental migrations of animal species in past geological times.

      Simpson received his doctorate from Yale University in 1926. He chose for his thesis the mammals (mammal) of the Mesozoic Era, which are important for the understanding of mammalian evolution, although evidence of their existence consists mainly of tantalizing fragments of jaws and teeth. The materials were located chiefly in the Peabody Museum at Yale and the British Museum in London. Simpson produced substantial quarto monographs on the two collections, making his reputation as an able worker in mammalian paleontology.

      In 1927 he joined the staff of the American Museum of Natural History, New York City, where he was to continue research in paleontology for three decades. The first 15 years were highly productive; he published about 150 scientific papers, many of considerable importance. A few dealt with lower vertebrates, but nearly all were on mammalian paleontology. In his first years in New York City he was interested in the fauna of Florida of the later Tertiary and Pleistocene (the Pleistocene Epoch, which followed the Tertiary Period, began about 2,500,000 years ago and ended about 10,000 years ago). He published a number of works on this topic. For the most part, however, his interests were in the early history of mammals, and most of his publications in the 1930s were concerned with this field. He studied the Cretaceous mammals of Mongolia and North America, especially the Paleocene fauna of the latter continent (the Paleocene Epoch began about 65,000,000 years ago and lasted about 11,000,000 years). This resulted in a major work on the Paleocene fauna of the Fort Union Formation of Montana, in which about 50 mammals of a variety of primitive types were found. The breadth of his studies of mammalian evolution led to the writing of a detailed classification of mammals that is standard in the field.

      In the Tertiary a series of mammalian fauna lived in South America that were quite unlike those of any other continent. Those of the late Tertiary and Pleistocene forms were fairly well known, but little was known of the earlier history of the peculiar South American groups. Hence, in the early 1930s, he made three expeditions to Patagonia to collect new material and re-study specimens already described; as a result of these efforts, the early history of the Tertiary mammals of South America became vastly better known. He published several dozen papers on these forms in the late 1930s and afterward two volumes summarizing their early history.

      During World War II Simpson did staff work for the U.S. Army, principally in North Africa. On his return to the American Museum, he became curator in charge of the active department of paleontology, as well as a professor at Columbia University. This restricted the time available for research, but his scientific productivity remained undiminished. While his descriptive work in paleontology continued, his interests spread to other fields. The possibility of applying mathematical methods to paleontology had already led to his co-authorship of a work on quantitative zoology. A consideration of the successive faunas of the various continental areas led to studies of the problems of the intercontinental migrations of animal species. Problems of taxonomy and classification are intimately connected with evolutionary studies, and, in addition to giving a thorough consideration of principles of classification in his work on mammalian classification, he published in 1961 a volume on The Principles of Animal Taxonomy. In a series of lectures which appeared in book form as The Meaning of Evolution in 1949, he discussed the philosophical implications of the acceptance of evolutionary theory, which attracted worldwide attention. In the postwar period there was a renewed study of evolutionary theory by geneticists, systematists, and paleontologists. Simpson took a major part in such studies; his principal publications in the area were his volumes Tempo and Mode in Evolution (1944; reissued 1984) and Major Features of Evolution (1953).

      In 1958 Simpson left New York City to spend a decade as an Alexander Agassiz Professor of Vertebrate Paleontology at the Harvard Museum of Comparative Zoology. After that he moved to Tucson, Ariz., where he became professor of geosciences at the University of Arizona, a post from which he retired in 1982. He continued to publish widely. Later works include Splendid Isolation: The Curious History of South American Mammals (1980), Why and How: Some Problems and Methods in Historical Biology (1980), and Fossils and the History of Life (1983).

Alfred S. Romer

Additional Reading
George Gaylord Simpson, Concession to the Improbable; an Unconventional Autobiography (1978), a candid self-portrait that abounds with lively descriptions of his field expeditions.

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Universalium. 2010.

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  • George Gaylord Simpson — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Simpson. George Gaylord Simpson (16 juin 1902 – 6 octobre 1984) est un paléontologiste américain. Il fut un expert des mammifères éteints et de leurs migrations. Sommaire …   Wikipédia en Français

  • George Gaylord Simpson — (* 16. Juni 1902 Chicago; † 6. Oktober 1984 in Tucson, Arizona) war ein US amerikanischer Zoologe, Paläontologe und einer der Architekten der Synthetischen Evolutionstheorie. Er war ein Experte für ausgestorbene Säugetiere (besonders Pferde) und… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • George Gaylord Simpson — (16 de junio de 1902 6 de octubre de 1984) fue paleontólogo y biólogo teórico estadounidense. Especialista en los mamíferos del Mesozoico y del Cenozoico, Simpson es, junto con Theodosius Dobzhansky y Ernst Mayr, uno de los principales teóricos… …   Wikipedia Español

  • George Gaylord Simpson — Infobox Scientist name = George Gaylord Simpson box width = image width =150px caption = George Gaylord Simpson birth date = June 16, 1902 birth place = death date = October 6, 1984 death place = residence = citizenship = nationality =American… …   Wikipedia

  • George G. Simpson — George Gaylord Simpson (* 16. Juni 1902 Chicago; † 6. Oktober 1984 in Tucson, Arizona) war ein US amerikanischer Zoologe, Paläontologe und einer der Architekten der Synthetischen Evolutionstheorie. Er war ein Experte für ausgestorbene Säugetiere… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • SIMPSON (G. G.) — SIMPSON GEORGE GAYLORD (1902 1984) Biologiste, géologue et paléontologiste américain, George G. Simpson étudia la biologie à l’université du Colorado, puis à l’université Yale. Il fut élève du National Research Council (1926 1927), puis assistant …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Simpson — Simpson, Thomas Simpson, desierto * * * (as used in expressions) Kay, Ulysses (Simpson) Simpson, George Gaylord Simpson, O(renthal) J(ames) Simpson, Sir James Young …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • George — George, David Lloyd George, Henry George, Pierre George, Stefan * * * (as used in expressions) Aberdeen, George Hamilton Gordon, 4 conde de George William Russell Akerlof, George A. Alexander, Harold (Rupert Leofric George) Alexander, 1 conde… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • George — /jawrj/, n. 1. a figure of St. George killing the dragon, esp. one forming part of the insignia of the Order of the Garter. 2. Brit. Slang. any coin bearing the image of St. George. 3. a word formerly used in communications to represent the… …   Universalium

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