Kingdom of ancient Korea that in AD 668 consolidated other polities on the Korean peninsula under the Unified Silla dynasty (668–935).

Traditionally believed to have been founded by Hyŏkkŏse in 57 BC, Silla emerged as a full-fledged kingdom in the 6th century. In the reign of King Chinhŭng (540–576), a unique military corps, the hwarang (see Hwarangdo), was organized; allied with Tang-dynasty China, it defeated the Korean state of Paekche in 660 and Koguryŏ in 668, then expelled the Tang forces to create a unified and independent Korean state. It adopted a Chinese bureaucratic structure, but its aristocracy was never replaced by a bureaucratic class based on merit. Silla art before unification shows a tendency toward abstraction; postunification art reflects Tang naturalism.

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▪ ancient kingdom, Korea
      one of the three kingdoms of ancient Korea and the one that in 668 unified Korea under the Unified Silla Dynasty (q.v.; 668–935). Silla is traditionally believed to have been founded by Hyŏkkŏse in 57 BC. By the 2nd century AD, a distinct confederation of local tribes was definitely in existence in the southeastern portion of the Korean peninsula. With the establishment of the hereditary monarchy of the Kim family during the reign of King Naemul (356–402), the promulgation of state laws and decrees, and the annexation of the eastern half of the Kaya state on the eastern tip of the peninsula in the reign of King Pŏphŭng (514–540), Silla emerged as a full-fledged kingdom.

      Its aristocracy was endowed with various privileges, and the aristocrats monopolized all important official posts. The excavations of extravagant ornaments, such as gold crowns and gold belts, indicate the luxury in which they lived. Sculpture and the decorative arts showed a tendency toward abstraction. A Silla crown, for example, is designed in simple, angular lines unlike the curvilinear floral designs characteristic of Paekche openwork. Granite was a frequent medium for both architecture and sculpture. Old Silla pottery is unglazed, grayish stoneware with a texture almost like that of slate. Vessel forms have clean-cut, functional lines, and decorations are incised geometric patterns.

      Encouraged by the state, Buddhism flourished, and many temples were erected, the most prominent of which were the Hwangyong-sa, Pulguk-sa, and Sokkuram (a grotto shrine).

      In the reign of King Chinhŭng (540–576) a unique military corps, called the Hwarangdo, was organized, and the military system was realigned. In the following century this powerful military machine allied itself with the Chinese T'ang dynasty (618–907) and subjugated the southeastern Korean state of Paekche in 660 and the northern Korean state of Koguryŏ in 668. This was followed by almost a decade of fighting, in which Silla expelled the T'ang forces and established a unified kingdom in the Korean peninsula.

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Universalium. 2010.

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