Scott, Robert Falcon

Scott, Robert Falcon
born June 6, 1868, Devonport, Devon, Eng.
died с March 29, 1912, Antarctica

British explorer.

He joined the Royal Navy in 1880, proved his competence leading an Antarctic expedition (1901–04), and was promoted to captain. In 1910 he embarked on a second expedition, and in October 1911 he and 11 others started overland for the South Pole. After their motor sledges broke down and seven men returned to base camp, Scott and four others trekked for 81 days to reach the pole in January 1912, only to find that Roald Amundsen had preceded them by about a month. Exhausted and beset by bad weather and insufficient supplies, the men died on the return trip, Scott and the last two survivors only 11 miles from their base camp. In England Scott was celebrated as a national hero for his courage, though his judgment has been questioned.

* * *

▪ English officer and explorer
born June 6, 1868, Devonport, Devon, Eng.
died c. March 29, 1912, Antarctica
 British naval officer and explorer who led the famed, ill-fated second expedition to reach the South Pole (1910–13).

      Scott joined the Royal Navy in 1880 and by 1897 had become a first lieutenant. While commanding an Antarctic expedition on the HMS Discovery (1901–04), he proved to be a competent scientific investigator and leader and was promoted to captain upon his return to England.

 In June 1910 Scott embarked on a second Antarctic expedition. Its aims were to study the Ross Sea area and reach the South Pole. Equipped with motor sledges, ponies, and dogs, he and 11 others started overland for the pole from Cape Evans on Oct. 24, 1911. The motors soon broke down, the ponies had to be shot before reaching 83°30′ S, and from there also the dog teams were sent back. On December 10 the party began to ascend Beardmore Glacier with three man-hauled sledges. By December 31 seven men had been returned to the base. The remaining polar party—Scott, E.A. Wilson, H.R. Bowers, L.E.G. Oates, and Edgar Evans—reached the pole on Jan. 18, 1912. Exhausted by their 81-day trek, they were bitterly disappointed to find evidence that Roald Amundsen (Amundsen, Roald) had preceded them to the pole by about a month.

      The weather on the return journey was exceptionally bad. Evans died at Beardmore (February 17). Food and fuel supplies were low. At the end of his strength and hoping to aid his companions by his own disappearance, Oates crawled out into a blizzard on March 17, at 79°50′ S. The three survivors struggled on for 10 miles (16.1 km) but then were bound to their tent by another blizzard that lasted for nine days. With quiet fortitude they awaited their death—11 miles from their destination. On March 29 Scott wrote the final entry in his diary:

Every day we have been ready to start for our depot 11 miles away but outside the door of the tent it remains a scene of whirling drift. . . . We shall stick it out to the end, but we are getting weaker, of course, and the end cannot be far. It seems a pity, but I do not think I can write more.

      On Nov. 12, 1912, searchers found the tent with the frozen bodies, geological specimens from Beardmore, and Scott's records and diaries, which gave a full account of the journey. After his death Scott was regarded as a national hero for his courage and patriotism, and his widow was given the knighthood that would have been conferred on her husband had he lived.

Additional Reading
Roland Huntford, Scott and Amundsen (1979, reissued 1993; also published as The Last Place on Earth, 1984), was newly critical in its examination of Scott's planning, judgment, and leadership on his fatal Antarctic expedition.

* * *

Universalium. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Поможем сделать НИР

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Scott,Robert Falcon — Scott, Robert Falcon. 1868 1912. British explorer who reached the South Pole (January 1912) only to find that Roald Amundsen had discovered the spot one month before. * * * …   Universalium

  • Scott, Robert Falcon — ► (1868 1912) Explorador británico. Preparó una expedición al Polo Sur, adonde llegó y pudo comprobar que Amundsen había alcanzado ya dicho lugar, por otra ruta, cuatro semanas antes. * * * (6 jun. 1868, Devonport, Devon, Inglaterra– 29 mar. 1912 …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Robert Falcon Scott — (um 1911 fotografiert von John Thomson) Robert Falcon Scott (* 6. Juni 1868 in Devonport bei Plymouth, England; † 29. März 1912, Ross Schelfeis, Antarktis) war ein britischer Marineoffizier und …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Robert Falcon Scott — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Robert Falcon Scott Robert Falcon Scott (Devonport, cerca de Plymouth, Inglaterra 6 de junio de 1868 Antártida 29 de marzo de 1912). Fue un capitán de la Royal Navy y explorador que dirigió dos expediciones a la… …   Wikipedia Español

  • Robert Falcon Scott — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Falcon, Scott et Robert Scott. Robert Falcon Scott …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Robert Falcon Scott — Infobox person name = Robert Falcon Scott image size = 200px name = Robert Falcon Scott birth date = birth date|1868|6|6 death date = death date and age|1912|3|29|1868|6|6 birth place = Devon, England death place = Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica… …   Wikipedia

  • Robert Falcon Scott — noun English explorer who reached the South Pole just a month after Amundsen; he and his party died on the return journey (1868 1912) • Syn: ↑Scott, ↑Robert Scott • Instance Hypernyms: ↑explorer, ↑adventurer …   Useful english dictionary

  • Robert Falcon Scott — ➡ Scott (I) * * * …   Universalium

  • Controversies surrounding Robert Falcon Scott — Captain Scott in polar gear, October 1911, at the start of his South Pole march The British Antarctic explorer Robert Falcon Scott became the subject of controversy when, more than 60 years after his death on the return march from the South… …   Wikipedia

  • SCOTT (R. F.) — SCOTT ROBERT FALCON (1868 1912) Explorateur britannique né à Devonport et mort au cours d’une expédition au pôle Sud, Robert Falcon Scott participa à la grande épopée de la découverte du continent antarctique entreprise à la fin du XIXe siècle… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”