Rhee, Syngman

Rhee, Syngman
born March 26, 1875, Whang-hae, Korea
died July 19, 1965, Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.

First president of the Republic of Korea (South Korea).

The first Korean to earn a Ph.D. at a U.S. university (Princeton), he returned to Korea in 1910, the year Japan annexed Korea. Unable to hide his hostility toward Japanese rule, he left again for the U.S. in 1912. For the next 30 years he spoke out for Korean independence; in 1919 he was elected president of a provisional government in exile. As the only Korean leader well known to the U.S., Rhee was returned to Korea ahead of his rivals at the end of World War II; he was elected president of the Republic of Korea in 1948. He held that post until 1960, when opposition to his authoritarian policies (which included outlawing the opposition Progressive Party) forced his resignation. He died in exile.

* * *

▪ president of South Korea
born March 26, 1875, Whanghae, Korea
died July 19, 1965, Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.

      first president of the Republic of Korea (South Korea).

      Rhee completed a traditional classical Confucian education and then entered a Methodist school, where he learned English. He became an ardent nationalist and ultimately a Christian and in 1896 joined with other Korean leaders to form the Independence Club, a group dedicated to asserting Korean independence. When right-wing elements destroyed the club in 1898, Rhee was arrested and imprisoned until 1904. On his release he went to the United States, where in 1910 he received a Ph.D. from Princeton, becoming the first Korean to earn a Ph.D. from an American university. He returned home in 1910, the year in which Korea was annexed by Japan. Rhee found it impossible to hide his hostility toward Japanese rule, and, after working briefly in a YMCA and as a high-school principal, he returned to the United States in 1912.

      He spent the next 30 years as a spokesman for Korean independence, trying in vain to win international support for his cause. In 1919 he was elected president of the Korean Provisional Government in exile. He held that post for 20 years and then was pushed out of the leadership by younger Korean nationalists centred in China. Rhee, however, remained in Washington, D.C., and spent the war years trying to secure Allied promises of Korean independence. Since Rhee was the only Korean leader well known to Americans, he was returned to Korea ahead of the other members of the Provisional Government after the war. He campaigned for a policy of immediate independence and unification of the country. He soon built up a mass political organization supported by strong-arm squads and a following among the police. With the assassination of the major moderate leaders, Rhee's new party won the elections in South Korea, and in 1948 he became president of the Republic of Korea, a post to which he was reelected in 1952, 1956, and 1960.

      As president, Rhee assumed dictatorial powers, tolerating little domestic opposition to his program. Rhee purged the National Assembly and outlawed the opposition Progressive Party, whose leader was executed for treason. He controlled the appointment of mayors, village headmen, and chiefs of police. He even defied the United Nations (UN) during the Korean War. Hoping that UN forces would continue to fight, eventually uniting North and South Korea under one government, Rhee hindered the truce talks by ordering the release of the North Korean anticommunist prisoners he held. (Under the agreed-upon truce settlement, these men were to have gone back to North Korea.) Stunned, the communists broke off the negotiations and renewed their attack, largely ignoring the UN forces and concentrating their fire on Rhee's South Korean troops. Having made their point, the communists then resumed negotiations, and a truce settlement was speedily signed.

      In spite of his authoritarian policies, Rhee failed to prevent the election of an opposition vice president in 1956. Government claims that the March 1960 elections gave Rhee more than 90 percent of the popular vote (55 percent in 1956) provoked student-led demonstrations resulting in heavy casualties and demands for his resignation. These demands were supported by the unanimous vote of the National Assembly. Hence, Rhee resigned on April 27, 1960, and went into exile in Hawaii.

* * *

Universalium. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Нужно решить контрольную?

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Rhee Syngman — Koreanische Schreibweise Siehe auch: Koreanischer Name Hangeul: 이승만 Hanja: 李承晚 …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Rhee,Syngman — Rhee (rē), Syngman. 1875 1965. Korean politician who became president of South Korea in 1948. His dictatorial rule ended in 1960, when he was forced out of office and into exile. * * * …   Universalium

  • Rhee, Syngman — (1875 1965)    South Korean leader Syngman Rhee spent most of the time between 1905 and 1945 in exile. He spent several years in the United States and studied at George Washington University and Princeton, where he obtained a Ph.D. He was elected …   Historical Dictionary of the Roosevelt–Truman Era

  • Rhee, Syngman — ► (1875 1965) Político coreano. En prisión se convirtió al cristianismo y escribió El espíritu de la independencia. Se refugió en Honolulú, donde agrupó a los exiliados nacionalistas y fue, en 1919, elegido presidente de la República en el exilio …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Rhee — Rhee, Syngman …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Syngman Rhee — 이승만 1º presidente del Gobierno Provisional de la República de Corea …   Wikipedia Español

  • Syngman Rhee — Koreanische Schreibweise Siehe auch: Koreanischer Name Hangeul: 이승만 Hanja: 李承晚 …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • RHEE (S.) — RHEE SYNGMAN ou LI SEUNG MAN (1875 1965) Président du gouvernement coréen provisoire en exil de 1919 à 1946 et premier président de la République de Corée (Corée du Sud), né dans la province de Hwanghae, descendant de la famille royale des Li,… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Syngman Rhee —   [englisch riː], koreanischer Politiker, Rhee, Syngman …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Syngman Rhee — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Rhee (homonymie). Dans ce nom coréen, le nom de famille, Rhee, précède le prénom. Syngman Rhee …   Wikipédia en Français

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”