Resnais, Alain

Resnais, Alain
born June 3, 1922, Vannes, France

French film director.

After studying at the French cinema school IDHEC, he made short films on the visual arts (Van Gogh [1948]) and documentaries (Night and Fog [1956]). His first feature film, Hiroshima mon amour (1959), created a sensation with its alternation between past and present and is considered one of the earliest and best films of the New Wave. He continued his exploration of the complex themes of time and memory in Last Year at Marienbad (1961). His later films include Muriel (1963), Stavisky (1974), My American Uncle (1980), Love unto Death (1984), I Want to Go Home (1989), Smoking/No Smoking (1993), and Same Old Song (1997).


By courtesy of the French Film Office, New York

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▪ French film director
born June 3, 1922, Vannes, France
 French motion-picture director, a leader of the Nouvelle Vague ( New Wave) of unorthodox, influential film directors appearing in France in the late 1950s. His major works include Hiroshima mon amour (1959) and L'Année dernière à Marienbad (1961; Last Year at Marienbad).

      Resnais was the son of a well-to-do pharmacist. A victim of chronic asthma, he spent a solitary childhood marked by intense interest in creative activity, characteristics that would remain salient through his adult life. While still a boy, he was given a movie camera, and at age 14 he directed his classmates in a film version of a popular thriller, Fantômas.

      Resnais's illness exempted him from military service in World War II, and in 1940 he went to Paris, where he studied cinema at the Institute of Advanced Cinematographic Studies. During the German occupation of France, he became interested in theatre; later he would reproach himself for having become too immersed in it to join the underground resistance movement, but his brief stage career helped develop his sensitivity to actors and his technique of rehearsing them for his films.

      Despite his interest in theatre, films remained his first love (along with comic strips, which he considered a kindred medium), and in 1947 he initiated a series of short films devoted to the visual arts with Chateaux de France, which he made by cycling and camping through the country. Having little interest in the French commercial-film industry of the time, he continued making shorts—on Vincent van Gogh, Paul Gauguin, and Pablo Picasso's painting Guernica, among others—for the next nine years. Even in such documentary-like works, Resnais's profound vision of man's ominous alienation from his own humanity began to be expressed. He received commissions for political and propaganda films, whose immediate purpose he fulfilled but also transcended artistically. Thus, his documentary about concentration camps, Nuit et brouillard (“Night and Fog”), with a commentary by a former inmate, the contemporary poet Jean Cayrol, stressed “the concentrationary beast slumbering within us all.” Le Chant du styrène (“The Song of Styrene”), written by author and critic Raymond Queneau (Queneau, Raymond), nominally publicizing the versatility of the plastic polystyrene, became a meditation on the transformation of matter from amorphous nature into bright, banal household implements.

      The postponement of popular success in Resnais's career permitted his art to mature all the more intensively. The solitude he experienced in childhood reappeared thematically in his sensitivity to the evanescence of experience, to the passing of time, and to the discrepancies between individual consciousnesses—themes that inspired comparisons to the philosophy of Henri Bergson (Bergson, Henri) and to the novels of Marcel Proust (Proust, Marcel).

      With Hiroshima mon amour, his first feature-length motion picture, Resnais attained preeminence among the innovative New Wave directors, particularly for the finesse with which he combined traditional form and radical content. In his preference for elaborate rehearsals of his actors, Resnais belongs to the classical cinema; but his social, political, and spiritual milieu was that of the Left Bank school of filmmakers, so called for their political philosophy as well as for a formidable intellectuality related to the cosmopolitan bohemianism of the Saint-Germain-des-Prés district, on the Left Bank of the Seine, in Paris. The orientation of this group was opposite to that of the Cahiers du cinéma subsection of the New Wave, which tended toward a politically quietist anarchism and drew upon a deliberately conventional, often Roman Catholic, bourgeois culture—and whose editorial offices were in the fashionable Champs-Élysées across the Seine. Though less well publicized and far less prolific, the Left Bank group (of whom Resnais was the spearhead) anticipated the political upheavals of Paris in 1968 and has dominated French cinema culture since the late 1960s.

 In his films Resnais showed man at his most sensitive, confronting his own devious barbarism—in the form of the atom bomb in Hiroshima mon amour, of a sumptuous but chilling dreamworld in L'Année dernière à Marienbad, of police torture in Muriel (1963). He repeatedly presented human relationships that are characterized by reticence, modesty, immaculate courtesy, and a stimulating respect for others, together with overtones of solitude. Resnais regularly worked with such distinguished French literary figures as Marguerite Duras (Duras, Marguerite) and Alain Robbe-Grillet (Robbe-Grillet, Alain), encouraging them to write the script as a piece of literature rather than as a screenplay. He then transposed their vision into cinematic terms, in a style richly suffused with his own sensibility. Notable among his later works of the 20th century are Stavisky (1974), Providence (1977), Mon oncle d'Amérique (1980), winner of a Special Jury Prize at the Cannes film festival, and On connaît la chanson (1997; Same Old Song). At the beginning of the 21st century, Pas sur la bouche (2003; Not on the Lips) and Coeurs (2006; U.S. title, Private Fears in Public Places) were both well received by critics.

      A resident of Paris, Resnais numbered among his close friends many lesser-known actors and technicians he worked with. His films epitomize the unusual blend of circumspection and commitment in his own personality. Although he dealt regularly with problems of personal and political action, his radical commitment was often underestimated by critics mesmerized by his immaculate style. His short films had several brushes with government censorship. Les Statues meurent aussi (1953; “Statues Also Die”), his study of African art, was banned for 12 years for references to colonialism that he refused to alter. Some critics condemned Hiroshima mon amour for its sympathetic treatment of the heroine, once a wartime collaborationist and later an interracial adulterer who advocated internationalism and the “New Morality.” Even when Resnais dealt explicitly with political figures, however, as in La Guerre est finie (1966; “The War Is Over”), his scrupulosity and tragic humanism are so much in evidence that his work transcends partisan feelings.

Raymond E. Durgnat Ed.

Additional Reading
Roy Armes, The Cinema of Alain Resnais (1968), provides a useful general survey. John Ward, Alain Resnais; or, The Theme of Time (1968), is a thoughtful study, preoccupied with Resnais as Bergsonian.

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Universalium. 2010.

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