Rauschenberg, Robert

Rauschenberg, Robert
orig. Milton Rauschenberg

born Oct. 22, 1925, Port Arthur, Texas, U.S.

U.S. painter and graphic artist.

He studied under Josef Albers. His "combine" paintings of the 1950s, incorporating objects such as soda bottles, traffic barricades, and stuffed birds, anticipated the Pop art movement. In later work, he used silkscreen and other techniques to transfer images from commercial print media and his own photographs to canvas, reinforcing the images and unifying them compositionally with bold strokes of paint. His work has roots in Dada and the ready-mades of Marcel Duchamp.

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▪ 2009
Milton Rauschenberg 
      American painter, graphic artist, performance artist, and photographer

born Oct. 22, 1925, Port Arthur, Texas

died May 12, 2008, Captiva Island, Florida
was a Renaissance man who blurred divisions between the arts and whose works helped serve as a transformational link between Abstract Expressionism and other new art movements; his early offerings anticipated the Pop art movement. Rauschenberg's first paintings in the early 1950s comprised a series of all-white and all-black surfaces underlaid with wrinkled newspaper. In subsequent works he began to explore the possibilities of making art from such objects as Coca-Cola bottles, traffic barricades, and stuffed birds, calling them “combine” paintings. In 1955 Rauschenberg became associated with the Merce Cunningham Dance Company, first as a designer of costumes and sets and later as a technical director. He also produced theatrical pieces in collaboration with composer John Cage. From the late 1950s Rauschenberg experimented with the use of newspaper and magazine photographs in his paintings, devising a process using solvent to transfer images directly onto the canvas. About 1962 he borrowed from Andy Warhol the silk-screen stencil technique for applying photographic images to large expanses of canvas, reinforcing the images and unifying them compositionally with broad strokes of paint reminiscent of Abstract Expressionist brushwork. By the 1970s, however, he had turned to prints on silk, cotton, and cheesecloth, as well as to three-dimensional constructions of cloth, paper, and bamboo in an Oriental manner. Among Rauschenberg's preoccupations from the 1970s to the 1990s were lithography and other printmaking techniques. He continued to incorporate imagery from the commercial print media but began to rely more heavily on his own photography. Following a stroke in 2002 that left his right side paralyzed, Rauschenberg continued to create, using his left hand and employing the aid of assistants.

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▪ American artist
original name  Milton Rauschenberg  
born Oct. 22, 1925, Port Arthur, Texas, U.S.
died May 12, 2008, Captiva Island, Fla.
 American painter and graphic artist whose early works anticipated the Pop art movement.

      Rauschenberg knew little about art until he visited an art museum during World War II while serving in the U.S. Navy. He studied painting at the Kansas City Art Institute in 1946–47, changed his name from Milton to Robert because it sounded more artistic, and studied briefly in Europe. During 1948–50 he studied at Black Mountain College, North Carolina, under the Bauhaus master Josef Albers (Albers, Josef) and at the Art Students League in New York City.

      Rauschenberg's first paintings in the early 1950s comprised a series of all-white and all-black surfaces underlaid with wrinkled newspaper. In subsequent works he began to explore the possibilities of making art from such objects as Coca-Cola bottles, traffic barricades, and stuffed birds, calling them “combine” paintings. In 1955 Rauschenberg became associated with the Merce Cunningham Dance Company, first as a designer of costumes and sets and later as a technical director. He also produced theatrical pieces in collaboration with composer John Cage (Cage, John).

      From the late 1950s Rauschenberg experimented with the use of newspaper and magazine photographs in his paintings, devising a process using solvent to transfer images directly onto the canvas. About 1962 he borrowed from Andy Warhol (Warhol, Andy) the silk-screen stencil technique for applying photographic images to large expanses of canvas, reinforcing the images and unifying them compositionally with broad strokes of paint reminiscent of Abstract Expressionist brushwork. These works draw on themes from modern American history and popular culture and are notable for their sophisticated compositions and the spatial relations of the objects depicted in them. During this period his painting became more purely graphic (e.g., Bicycle [1963]) than the earlier combines. By the 1970s, however, he had turned to prints on silk, cotton, and cheesecloth, as well as to three-dimensional constructions of cloth, paper, and bamboo in an Oriental manner.

      Among Rauschenberg's preoccupations from the 1970s to the 1990s were lithography and other printmaking techniques. He continued to incorporate imagery from the commercial print media but began to rely more heavily on his own photography. Some of his works were influenced by visits with artists in such countries as China, Japan, and Mexico.

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Universalium. 2010.

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  • Rauschenberg, Robert — ► (n. 1925) Pintor estadounidense. Está considerado uno de los pioneros del pop art. Obras: Flush y Pequeño jeroglífico, entre otras. * * * orig. Milton Rauschenberg (n. 22 oct. 1925, Port Arthur, Texas, EE.UU.). Pintor y artista gráfico… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Rauschenberg,Robert — Rausch·en·berg (rouʹshən bûrg ), Robert. Born 1925. American artist noted for his collages, photomontages, and paintings that incorporate photographs and real objects. * * * …   Universalium

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  • Robert Rauschenberg — Rauschenberg redirects here. For other uses, see Rauschenberg (disambiguation). Robert Rauschenberg Robert Rauschenberg, American Artist, Photograph by Irving Penn Birth name Milton Ernest …   Wikipedia

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  • RAUSCHENBERG (R.) — RAUSCHENBERG ROBERT (1925 ) Peintre américain, né à Port Arthur (Texas). Malgré les nombreuses polémiques suscitées par sa carrière, Robert Rauschenberg apparaît comme l’un des artistes les plus importants de la seconde génération de l’après… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

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  • Rauschenberg — Rauschenberg, Robert (1925 ) a US painter who is one of the most famous painters in ↑pop art …   Dictionary of contemporary English

  • Rauschenberg, Milton Ernest — (10/22/1925 Port Arthur, TX ) (USA); aka Rauschenberg, Bob / Rauschenberg, Robert Painter, sculptor, assemblagist, printmaker, photographer, performance artist, and collagist. Studied at the Kansas City Art Institute, the Kansas City School of… …   Dictionary of erotic artists: painters, sculptors, printmakers, graphic designers and illustrators

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