Paris Peace Conference

Paris Peace Conference
(1919–20) Meeting that inaugurated the international settlement after World War I.

It opened on Jan. 12, 1919, with representatives from more than 30 countries. The principal delegates were France's Georges Clemenceau, Britain's David Lloyd George, the U.S.'s Woodrow Wilson, and Italy's Vittorio Emanuele Orlando, who with their foreign ministers formed a Supreme Council. Commissions were appointed to study specific financial and territorial questions, including reparations. The major products of the conference were the League of Nations; the Treaty of Versailles, presented to Germany; the Treaty of Saint-Germain, presented to Austria; and the Treaty of Neuilly, presented to Bulgaria. The inauguration of the League of Nations on Jan. 16, 1920, brought the conference to a close. Treaties were subsequently concluded with Hungary (Treaty of Trianon, 1920) and Turkey (Treaties of Sèvres, 1920, and Lausanne, 1923).

* * *

▪ 1919–20
      (1919–20), the meeting that inaugurated the international settlement after World War I.

      Although hostilities had been brought formally to an end by a series of armistices between the Allies and their adversaries—that of Salonika (Thessaloníka) with Bulgaria on Sept. 29, 1918, that of Mudros (Mudros, Armistice of) with Turkey (Ottoman Empire) on October 30, that of Villa Giusti with Austria-Hungary on November 3, and that of Rethondes with Germany on November 11—the conference did not open until Jan. 18, 1919. This delay was attributable chiefly to the British prime minister, David Lloyd George (Lloyd George, David), who chose to have his mandate confirmed by a general election before entering into negotiations.

      Lloyd George's arrival in Paris was followed on Jan. 12, 1919, by a preliminary meeting of the French, British, U.S., and Italian heads of government and foreign ministers—respectively Georges Clemenceau (Clemenceau, Georges) and Stephen Pichon; Lloyd George and Arthur James Balfour; (Balfour, Arthur James Balfour, 1st earl of, Viscount Traprain) Woodrow Wilson (Wilson, Woodrow) and Robert Lansing; (Lansing, Robert) and Vittorio Emanuele Orlando (Orlando, Vittorio Emanuele) and Sidney Sonnino (Sonnino, Sidney, Barone)—at which it was decided that they themselves, with the Japanese plenipotentiaries, would constitute a Supreme Council, or Council of Ten, to monopolize all the major decision making. In March, however, the Supreme Council was, for reasons of convenience, reduced to a Council of Four, numbering only the Western heads of government, as the chief Japanese plenipotentiary, Prince Saionji Kimmochi, abstained from concerning himself with matters of no interest to Japan. The foreign ministers continued to meet as a Council of Five dealing with secondary matters.

      The five Great Powers likewise controlled the Supreme Economic Council, created in February 1919 to advise the conference on economic measures to be taken pending the negotiation of peace. Specialized commissions were appointed to study particular problems: the organization of a League of Nations (Nations, League of) and the drafting of its Covenant; the determination of responsibility for the war and guarantees against a renewal of it; reparations; international labour legislation; international ports, waterways, and railroads; financial questions; economic questions of a permanent sort; aviation; naval and military matters; and territorial questions.

      Major products of the conference were (1) the Covenant of the League of Nations, which was submitted in a first draft on Feb. 14, 1919, and finally approved, in a revised version, on April 28, (2) the Treaty of Versailles (Versailles, Treaty of), presented at last to a German delegation on May 7, 1919, and signed, after their remonstrances, on June 28, (3) the Treaty of Saint-Germain (Saint-Germain, Treaty of), presented to an Austrian delegation in a rough draft on June 2, 1919, and in a fuller version on July 20 and signed on September 10, and (4) the Treaty of Neuilly (Neuilly, Treaty of), presented to a Bulgarian delegation on Sept. 19, 1919, and signed on November 27. There had been wrangling among the Allies over both the treaties with Germany and those with Austria. Concerning the former, the Americans and the British resisted French demands affecting Germany's western frontier and the Polish demand, supported by France, for Danzig ( Gdańsk), while the Americans also objected to Japanese claims to Germany's special privileges in Shantung, China. Concerning the latter treaty, the Italians and the Yugoslavs (Yugoslavia) quarreled over the partition of Austria's former possessions on the Adriatic Sea.

      The formal inauguration of the League of Nations on Jan. 16, 1920, brought the Paris conference to an end, before the conclusion of treaties with Turkey (1920, 1923) or with Hungary (1920).

* * *

Universalium. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Нужно решить контрольную?

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Paris Peace Conference — The term Paris Peace Conference may refer to: * Treaty of Paris, 1783, formally ended the American Revolutionary War * The Paris Peace Conference, 1898, negotiated the ending of the Spanish American War * The Paris Peace Conference, 1919,… …   Wikipedia

  • Paris Peace Conference — noun the meeting of representatives of the Allies that took place after the end of World War I to set the peace terms for the defeated Central Powers and prescribe new rules for international relations; took place in Paris 1919–20; decided on the …  

  • Paris Peace Conference, 1919 — The Big Four during the Paris Peace Conference (from left to right, David Lloyd George, Vittorio Orlando, George Clemenceau, Woodrow Wilson) …   Wikipedia

  • List of participants to Paris Peace Conference, 1919 — Paris Peace Conference, 1919 gathered the 25 nations to shape the result of World War One. The Russian SFSR was not invited to attend. Central Powers, Germany and its former allies were not allowed to attend the conference until after the details …   Wikipedia

  • Paris Peace Conference —    See Versailles Treaty …   Historical dictionary of Weimar Republik

  • Paris Peace Treaties, 1947 — The Paris Peace Conference (July 29 to October 15, 1946) resulted in the Paris Peace Treaties signed on February 10, 1947. The victorious wartime Allied powers (principally the United States, United Kingdom, France and the Soviet Union)… …   Wikipedia

  • Paris Peace Accords — The Paris Peace Accords (or Paris Agreement on Ending the War and Restoring Peace in Vietnam) were signed on January 27, 1973 by the governments of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam), the Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam), and… …   Wikipedia

  • Madrid peace conference letter of invitation — The Madrid peace conference letter of invitation, also known as the Madrid Invitation or Letter of invitation to the Middle East Peace Conference in Madrid, of October 19, 1991, was a formal diplomatic invitation by the United States and the… …   Wikipedia

  • Peace Now — (Hebrew: שלום עכשיו Shalom Akhshav ) is a left wing non governmental organization [,7340,L 3409006,00.html Peace Now in Hebron: Expel settlers from city Israel News, Ynetnews ] ] in Israel with the agenda of… …   Wikipedia

  • Paris 1919 (disambiguation) — Paris 1919 usually refers to the Paris Peace Conference, 1919. Other uses include:* Paris 1919 (album), a 1973 album by musician John Cale * , a 2001 book by historian Margaret MacMillan …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”