Pacher, Michael

Pacher, Michael
born с 1435, County of Tirol
died August 1498, Salzburg?, Archbishopric of Salzburg

Austrian painter and sculptor.

His colossal altarpiece for the Pilgrimage Church of St. Wolfgang in Upper Austria (1479–81) is a masterpiece of late Gothic painting, sculpture, and architecture. The painted panels, with their deep architectural perspective and dramatic foreshortening, indicate a knowledge of Andrea Mantegna. The sculptural portions, with their intricate detail, bright polychrome, and sweeping draperies, show his attachment to northern traditions; and the architectural elements show an extravagant version of the late Gothic style. Pacher was one of the earliest artists to introduce the principles of Renaissance painting into German-speaking regions.

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▪ Austrian artist
born c. 1435, County of Tirol
died August 1498, Salzburg?, Archbishopric of Salzburg

      late Gothic painter and wood-carver, one of the earliest artists to introduce the principles of Renaissance painting into Germany.

      Little is known of Pacher's early life, but he is thought to have gone to Italy, where he was much impressed by the experiments in perspective of two eminent northern Italian artists of the Renaissance, Jacopo Bellini and Andrea Mantegna (Mantegna, Andrea). That trip must have occurred sometime before Pacher began work on the St. Wolfgang altarpiece of the Pilgrimage Church of Sankt Wolfgang in Upper Austria (centre completed in 1479; wings completed in 1481). The large figures placed close to the picture plane and seen from a low viewpoint, the deep architectural perspective, and the dramatic foreshortening in such scenes as the “Expulsion of the Money Changers from the Temple” and the “Nativity” betray knowledge of Mantegna's frescoes in the Church of the Eremitani in Padua. Pacher, however, rejected Mantegna's statuesque compositions in favour of a dynamic sense of movement. In contrast to the painted wings, the carved and painted centre of the altarpiece, showing the “Coronation of the Virgin,” exhibits no Italian characteristics. Instead, its intricate carving that accentuates minute detail, the bright polychrome and sweeping draperies are wholly northern in spirit.

      In the “Altarpiece of the Church Fathers” (c. 1483; Alte Pinakothek, Munich), Pacher uses direct and reflected light to create a convincing spatial ambience within a shallow depth. His narrow niches are dominated by the four monumental figures of the Fathers of the Church. The back of the altarpiece exhibits scenes from the life of St. Wolfgang and is notable for its attenuated male nude, whose idealized form and sharp outline again reflect Pacher's knowledge of Mantegna's art. Such late works as the “Betrothal of the Virgin” and the “Flagellation” (both c. 1484; Museum Mittelalterlicher Österreichischer Kunst, Vienna) repudiate his early dynamic compositions and introduce a new, static serenity. The faces and drapery are more idealized and more monumental than in his early works, and the figures are emphasized at the expense of the architectural background.

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Universalium. 2010.

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  • Pacher, Michael — (c. 1435 1498)    Austrian painter and sculptor who commingled Italian and Northern elements in his art, creating a new idiom of expression. He was from the Tyrol region, and was probably born in Neutstift, near Bressanone, Italy, hence the… …   Dictionary of Renaissance art

  • Pacher, Michael — ( 1435, cond. de Tirol–ago. 1498, ¿Salzburgo?, arzobispado de Salzburgo). Pintor y escultor austríaco. Su colosal retablo para la iglesia de los peregrinos de Sankt Wolfgang al norte de Austria (1471–81) es una obra maestra de la pintura, la… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • PACHER (M.) — PACHER MICHAEL (1435 env. 1498) Peintre et sculpteur sur bois autrichien, Michael Pacher est probablement né à Neustift am Brixen, dans la famille du prévôt Léonard Pacher. Les conditions de son apprentissage sont mal connues, mais ses voyages en …   Encyclopédie Universelle

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  • Michael Pacher — San Agustín y el Diablo por Michael Pacher (1471 75) en la Alte Pinakothek de Múnich. Michael Pacher (h. 1435 agosto 1498) fue un pintor y escultor austriaco del Gótico, activo en el último cuarto del siglo XV …   Wikipedia Español

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  • Pacher — ist der Name folgender Orte: Pacher (Gemeinde Strallegg), eine Katastralgemeinde in der Steiermark Pacher ist der Familienname folgender Personen: Anton Pacher (1897–1945), österreichischer Komponist und Lehrer David Pacher (1816–1902),… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

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