Ojukwu, Odumegwu

Ojukwu, Odumegwu
born Nov. 4, 1933, Nnewi, Nigeria

Governor of Eastern Region, Nigeria (1966–67), and head of the secessionist state of Biafra (1967–70).

A member of the Igbo, Ojukwu was educated at Oxford University. He was appointed head of the traditional Igbo homelands in the east following the overthrow of Nigeria's civilian government by Igbo military leaders. He stayed on in that capacity even after members of the opposition Hausa and Yoruba staged a successful countercoup. Mounting secessionist pressures compelled him to declare the Eastern Region an independent state in 1967. Following the Biafra conflict he fled to Côte d'Ivoire; he returned to Nigeria in 1982.

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▪ Nigerian politician
in full  Ikemba Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu 
born November 4, 1933, Nnewi, Nigeria

      Nigerian military leader and politician, who was head of the secessionist state of Biafra during the Nigerian civil war.

      The son of a successful Igbo businessman, Ojukwu graduated from the University of Oxford in 1955. He returned to Nigeria to serve as an administrative officer but after two years joined the army and was rapidly promoted thereafter. In January 1966 a group of largely Igbo junior army officers led by Major General Johnson Aguiyi-Ironsi overthrew Nigeria's civilian government. Lieutenant Colonel Ojukwu was appointed military governor of the mostly Igbo Eastern region. However, Hausa and Yoruba army officers from the Northern and Western regions feared a government dominated by Igbo, and in July 1966 northern officers staged a successful countercoup in which Lieutenant Colonel (later General) Yakubu Gowon (Gowon, Yakubu) became the new head of state. Ojukwu retained his command of the Eastern region under Gowon's rule as the rising tide of feeling against the Igbo in the Northern region led to large-scale massacres of Igbo civilians by northern soldiers in September 1966.

      The Eastern region felt increasingly isolated and alienated from the federal military government under Gowon. Ojukwu's main proposal to end the ethnic strife was the creation in Nigeria of a weak federation-type government, which would allow the largest ethnic groups to have substantial political autonomy. The federal government tentatively agreed to this solution at a conference in January 1967 but then rejected it soon afterward. Ojukwu responded in March–April 1967 by separating the Eastern regional government's administration and revenues from those of the federal government. Mounting secessionist pressures from his fellow Igbo finally compelled Ojukwu on May 30, 1967, to declare the Eastern region an independent state as the Republic of Biafra. Federal troops soon afterward invaded Biafra, and civil war broke out in July 1967. Ojukwu led Biafra's unsuccessful struggle to survive as an independent nation throughout the civil war (1967–70), and on the eve of Biafra's surrender he fled to Côte d'Ivoire, where he was granted asylum.

      Ojukwu remained in Côte d'Ivoire until 1982, when he was pardoned and returned to Nigeria. He joined the National Party of Nigeria (NPN) in January 1983 and subsequently attempted to reenter politics by running as an NPN candidate; his bid for the senate representing the state of Onitsha was unsuccessful. He was detained for 10 months following a coup that brought Muhammad Buhari (Buhari, Muhammad) to power at the end of 1984. In 1993 he once again joined a political party, this time the Social Democratic Party, but he was disqualified from running for president.

      A member of constitutional conferences in 1993 and again from 1994–95, he, along with other former Nigerian leaders, was consulted in 1998 by Abdusalam Abubakar (Abubakar, Abdusalam), the military head of state, as Nigeria once again began the process of converting from military to civilian rule. In 2003 Ojukwu, representing the new political party All Progressive Grand Alliance, unsuccessfully ran for president. He ran again in 2007 but was defeated by the ruling party's candidate, Umaru Yar'Adua, in an election that was strongly criticized by international observers as being marred by voting irregularities.

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Universalium. 2010.

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  • Ojukwu, Odumegwu — ► (n. 1933) Político y militar de Nigeria. En 1967 proclamó el Estado independiente de Biafra. Tras la caída de la capital seccesionista en manos de los centralistas, dirigió la resistencia en la selva hasta 1982. * * * (n. 4 nov. 1933, Nnewi,… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Ojukwu — Ojukwu, Odumegwu …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Odumegwu Emeka Ojukwu — est né le 4 novembre 1933. Licencié en histoire contemporaine à Oxford et diplômé de l’école militaire d’Eaton Hall, il devient gouverneur militaire de l État de l est (l’Eastern State) au Nigeria à partir de janvier 1966. Il proclame… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Ojukwu — Ojukwu,   Chukwuemeka Odumegwu, nigerianischer Politiker, * Nnewi (Ostnigeria) 4. (nach anderen Quellen 24.) 11. 1933; gehört dem Volk der Ibo an, wurde in Großbritannien zum Offizier ausgebildet, 1962 als Oberstleutnant bei der UN Truppe in der… …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Odumegwu Ojukwu — Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu (4 de noviembre de 1933, Nnewi, Nigeria ) fue un gobernador de la región oriental de Nigeria (1966–1967) y líder del estado separatista de Biafra (1967–1970). Biografía Miembro del pueblo Igbo, Ojukwu fue educado en la …   Wikipedia Español

  • Odumegxu Ojukwu — Odumegwu Emeka Ojukwu Odumegwu Emeka Ojukwu est né le 4 novembre 1933. Licencié en histoire contemporaine à Oxford et diplômé de l’école militaire d’Eaton Hall, il devient gouverneur militaire de l État de l est (l’Eastern State) au Nigeria à… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Odumgxu Ojukwu — Odumegwu Emeka Ojukwu Odumegwu Emeka Ojukwu est né le 4 novembre 1933. Licencié en histoire contemporaine à Oxford et diplômé de l’école militaire d’Eaton Hall, il devient gouverneur militaire de l État de l est (l’Eastern State) au Nigeria à… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Odumegwu — Chukwuemeka Odumegwu, auch Ojukwu (* 4. November 1933 in Zungeru, Nordnigeria) war ein nigerianischer Offizier und ist Politiker. Leben Er gehört dem Volk der Ibo an. 1957 trat er in die Armee ein. 1966 wurde er Militärgouverneur der Ostregion… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Ojukwu — Chukwuemeka Odumegwu, auch Ojukwu (* 4. November 1933 in Zungeru, Nordnigeria) war ein nigerianischer Offizier und ist Politiker. Leben Er gehört dem Volk der Ibo an. 1957 trat er in die Armee ein. 1966 wurde er Militärgouverneur der Ostregion… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Ojukwu — /əˈdʒukwu/ (say uh joohkwooh) noun (Chukwuemeka) Odumegwu /tʃukwuˈɛməkə oʊduˈmɛgwu/ (say choohkwooh emuhkuh ohdooh megwooh), 1933–2011, Nigerian army officer and politician, leader of Biafra 1967–70 …  

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