- Niger-Congo languages
Family of some 1,400 languages of Africa.All of these are considered to be distinct languages and not simply dialects. The named dialects of these languages number many thousands more, not to mention the variant names for those languages and dialects. Niger-Congo languages are spoken by about 85% of the population of Africa, from Dakar, Senegal, in the west to Mombasa, Kenya, and in the east and south to Cape Town, S.Af. The name Niger-Congo was introduced in 1955 by Joseph H. Greenberg. As understood today, Niger-Congo has nine branches: Mande, Kordofanian, Atlantic (formerly West Atlantic), Kru, Gur, Kwa, Ijoid, Adamawa-Ubangi (formerly Adamawa-Eastern), and Benue-Congo.
* * *Introductiona family of languages of Africa, which in terms of the number of languages spoken, their geographic extent, and the number of speakers is by far the largest language family in Africa. The area in which these languages are spoken stretches from Dakar, Senegal, at the westernmost tip of the continent, east to Mombasa in Kenya and south to Cape Town, South Africa. Excluding northern Africa (Mauritania to Egypt and The Sudan) and the Horn of Africa (Ethiopia to Somalia), some 85 percent of the population of Africa—at least 600 million people—speak a Niger-Congo language. In two countries, Niger and Chad, Niger-Congo languages are spoken by a minority. In northern Nigeria, northern Uganda, and Kenya there are substantial populations speaking other languages, but even in these countries the majority of the population speaks a Niger-Congo language.The latest estimation of the number of Niger-Congo languages is about 1,400. All of these are considered to be distinct languages and not simply dialects. The named dialects of these languages number many thousands more, not to mention the variant names for those languages and dialects. For example, Swahili (Swahili language) alone has 17 separate dialects and 15 additional variant names for some of the dialects.With such a huge language family spread so widely across a vast continent, the question naturally arises: If these languages are genetically related, where was their original homeland? What light do the relationships that are evident in the languages today and the current geographic location of these languages shed on the history of the peoples of Africa? One of the leading 20th-century scholars of Niger-Congo languages, Kay Williamson, argues on the basis of the principle of least moves that for the Benue-Congo languages (which account for half of the Niger-Congo family) there is evidence pointing to an original homeland in the area of the confluence of the Niger (Niger River) and Benue (Benue River) rivers. Over many centuries, the peoples of the Benue-Congo group spread out mostly south and east. Beyond Williamson's rather convincing hypothesis and broadening the discussion to all the other branches of Niger-Congo, there is no consensus among scholars as to the origins and historical development of Niger-Congo languages.Early recordsThough Arabic documents of the 10th, 11th, and 12th centuries cite a few words that are probably taken from Niger-Congo languages, the earliest clearly identifiable words are found in Portuguese records in 1506. These words probably come from Karanga, a southeastern Bantu language. From then on eastern Bantu words and phrases occur in Portuguese records, and in 1523 a vocabulary that resembles modern Akan (Akan languages) from Ghana was also recorded. In 1591 the Italian mathematician Filippo Pigafetta included a number of Kongo (Kongo language) words and phrases in a description of the kingdom of Congo that he based on information provided by Oduardo Lopez, a Portuguese traveler to Luanda in 1578. The first extant book written in a Niger-Congo language was published in 1624. This 134-page book was the work of three Jesuit priests. It consists of a catechism in Portuguese with an interlinear translation into Kongo.In 1659 the first known grammar of an African language, a 98-page study of Kongo, was published in Rome; it was the work of Giacinto Brusciotto, an Italian missionary, who notably described the characteristic noun class system. Though several other vocabularies and grammatical sketches followed, that century and the next saw a rather sparse number of works on African languages. Only in the 19th century did a significant number of vocabularies and grammars appear, and they came mostly from the pens of missionaries (mission). They varied greatly in quality, and many were constrained by a Latin grammar straitjacket. Among the notable exceptions was the work of J.G. Christaller of the Basel Mission, whose grammar (1875) of the Asante (Ashanti) and Fante (Fanti) languages shows exceptional insight into language structures.Classification of Niger-Congo languagesIn the 19th century, scholars began to attempt classification of the various Niger-Congo languages. Sigismund W. Koelle, a German missionary of the Church Missionary Society working among freed slaves in Freetown (now in Sierra Leone), produced his monumental work, Polyglotta Africana, in 1854. He obtained lists of 283 words in 156 languages and grouped them so as to reflect what he considered to be the relationships between the languages. Many of his language groups correspond closely to the current classification of these languages.By the middle of the 19th century, scholars had begun to recognize that the languages of western and southern Africa were related, but the lack of detailed knowledge of the majority of these languages prevented serious classificatory study at that time. In 1927 the German scholar Diedrich Westermann (Westermann, Diedrich) recognized the distinction between the Western Sudanic (now called Niger-Congo) and the Eastern Sudanic (now called Nilo-Saharan (Nilo-Saharan languages)) languages. Westermann also recognized the similarities between words in languages of his Western Sudanic group and those in Bantu languages, though he did not go on to draw the conclusion that pointed to a common genetic origin for these languages.This conclusion was first reached by Joseph H. Greenberg (Greenberg, Joseph H.), whose work in the 1940s and '50s established that Westermann's Western Sudanic languages and Bantu formed a single genetic family, which Greenberg called for the first time Niger-Congo. The name was coined to reflect the predominance of these languages in the great river basins of the Niger (Niger River) and Congo (Congo River) rivers. Greenberg rejected any classification based merely on general typological features—e.g., that several languages possess noun classes—unless this was substantiated by a detailed comparison of the actual forms by which these systems were realized. Thus particular grammatical morphemes (morpheme) were compared across languages to see if they had similar forms and functions.Greenberg's main method, however, was what he called “mass comparison.” It involved comparing word lists of basic vocabulary from a large number of languages and establishing cognates in at least some (though not necessarily all) of the languages in each of the groupings he had established. Greenberg's classificatory framework has largely been accepted by scholars, though some significant changes have been made. These changes are reflected in the latest overall classification published in 1989 as The Niger-Congo Languages, which is followed here.The languages of present-day Niger-Congo are divided into nine major branches: Mande (Mande languages), Kordofanian (Kordofanian languages), Atlantic (Atlantic languages), Ijoid (Ijoid languages), Kru (Kru languages), Gur (Gur languages), Adamawa-Ubangi (Adamawa-Ubangi languages), Kwa (Kwa languages), and Benue-Congo (Benue-Congo languages), which are shown in bold in the diagram—. (Scholars are not agreed on the classification of Dogon (Dogon language); hence it is listed separately, though it does not constitute a branch as do the other nine.)The nine branches relate to each other in different ways, some being closer to each other than others. Adamawa-Ubangi and Gur, for example, appear to be closer to each other than, say, Kru and Kwa. These somewhat varied relationships reflect the fact that the nine major branches did not derive directly from a common ancestor. The intermediate steps that occurred over thousands of years can be tentatively reconstructed as in the diagram above, which attempts to show the most widely accepted hypothesis of the genetic origin of the branches now included in the Niger-Congo family.This classification suggests that Mande and Kordofanian were the first two branches to break off from the original Niger-Congo family. It is not meant to imply that this occurred at the same time but merely that the languages in these two branches show greater divergence from all the other Niger-Congo languages, which are at that stage termed Atlantic-Congo.The next divergences from the main language family gave rise to the languages now grouped as Atlantic and Ijoid. Subsequently the remaining group, labeled Volta-Congo, divided into five main branches: Kru, Kwa, Benue-Congo, Gur, and Adamawa-Ubangi. Dogon is included at this level because scholars have never been able to establish it as a member of any of the other branches.Widespread characteristics of Niger-Congo languagesNoun classesThe system of noun classes is probably the characteristic most widely found in Niger-Congo languages and best known to those interested in language phenomena. Though the extent to which the system operates varies greatly, it is nonetheless found in some form in languages from each of the branches of Niger-Congo.In a noun class system all nouns are marked by an affix; usually one affix signals a singular noun and another signals a plural form. Since these affixes cannot be predicted by phonological or semantic factors, all nouns have to be assigned to classes on the basis of their singular and plural forms. The affixes may be prefixes or suffixes or both, and the number varies from language to language. Most noun class systems have an accompanying concord system; i.e., other elements in the clause—particularly other elements within the noun phrase itself, such as determiners, adjectives, or numerals and frequently the verbs—also are marked by an affix selected according to the class of the noun. Similarly there are sets of pronouns, and the selection of the pronoun in a particular clause is determined by the class of the noun to which the pronoun refers. Frequently the same syllable that marks the noun is repeated with these other elements; or, if not the identical syllable, a form that has a phonetic resemblance to it is instead repeated.These features may be illustrated by an example from Swahili (Swahili language). Notice that in the sentence wa-tu wa-le wa-mefika (consisting of noun, demonstrative, and verb, meaning ‘those people have arrived'), concordial elements link all three parts of the sentence by the prefix wa-. This may be compared to the singular construction m-tu yu-le a-mefika ‘that person has arrived.'No complete explanation has been found for the fact that in some languages the concordial elements are prefixes and in others suffixes, and in a few languages both prefixes and suffixes are used to mark the nouns. There is some evidence that the older forms were prefixes and that changes from prefixes to suffixes have occurred in some languages. This change may have involved a binder at the end of a noun phrase that gave rise to suffixes and the eventual loss of the prefixes.The number of noun classes varies from language to language. Within the Atlantic (Atlantic languages) branch, for instance, the number of noun classes varies from 3 to nearly 40. In the Gur (Gur languages) branch 11 classes are most commonly found. In Bantu (Bantu languages) languages 12 to 15 noun classes frequently occur, and early Bantu, as reconstructed by scholars, is thought to have had some 23 noun classes.It is very likely that, originally, semantic considerations determined which affixes marked a particular noun class. All humans might be marked with the same affix and all animals with another, all body parts with another, all liquids with another, and so on. But these semantic categories have broken down, and meaning is no longer a reliable predictor of the noun class to which a particular noun may belong.Most linguists accept the probability that Proto-Niger-Congo had a noun class system, though not all Niger-Congo languages have retained it. Many languages exhibit a partial retention; e.g., there may be a much-reduced system with only a small number of classes, or, similarly, traces of the noun class system may be evident but the concordial features have been lost so that no system of agreement exists between the noun and its qualifiers and/or verb.Most Niger-Congo languages have tonal systems, most commonly with two or three contrasting levels of pitch (though four levels are also found and very occasionally even five). The feature of down-step frequently occurs, with the high tone that occurs after a low tone being lower than the preceding high tone. Tonal patterns are often complicated by what are known as “floating tones.” Frequently, when a syllable is deleted or when vowels are elided, the tones carried by those syllables are retained, and they interact with preceding and/or succeeding tones to result in tonal perturbations.Another common feature is that the level of tone is lowered after the occurrence of certain depressor consonants, namely voiced fortis obstruents. The function of tone varies from language to language; sometimes it marks grammatical features, sometimes lexical contrasts. In general, the languages with more tone levels use tone to distinguish lexical items rather than grammatical constructions.Vowel harmonyA widespread phonological feature of Niger-Congo languages is that vowels fall into two sets: i e ə o u and i ε a ɔ υ. In any one word, only vowels from one set may occur. The main phonetic difference between the two sets is the position of the root of the tongue, whether advanced or retracted, though there may also be differences in the movement of the larynx.Most languages do not have a full set of 10 vowels. Quite frequently nine- or seven-vowel systems occur, and the contrasting sets are reduced, the open central vowel a being neutral and occurring with both sets. Even in languages without a vowel harmony system, there are often severe limitations on the second vowel in a stem. Frequently the second vowel is the same as the first vowel, or it may be restricted to a smaller subset of vowels than those occurring in the first syllable.Nasality (nasal)Nasalized vowels are common. In many languages, however, the set of nasalized vowels is smaller than the set of oral vowels. The sequence nasal followed by a consonant (as in the Igbo ḿbè ‘tortoise,' ńdí ‘people,' ńtí ‘eat,' and ḿmà ‘knife') occurs in many languages, as do pre-nasalized stops (as in Swahili ndizi ‘banana' and panga ‘machete'), where they function in the same way as simple consonants within stems (i.e., ndi-zi and pa-nga). Swahili also has syllabic nasals that involve two morphemes very like the Igbo examples above. Many languages have both syllabic nasals and pre-nasalized stops.Verb serializationIn many Niger-Congo languages a number of verbal constructions that share the same subject and the same tense/aspect/polarity features follow one another without conjunctions. In some languages the first verb is marked for tense/aspect/polarity and succeeding verbs are unmarked. In other languages the first verb carries the primary markers for tense/aspect/polarity, while the subsequent verbs are marked to show they are following the first verb.John T. Bendor-SamuelAdditional ReadingGeneral works on African languagesThe most authoritative and up-to-date overview of languages and language-related topics in Africa is Thomas A. Sebeok, Current Trends in Linguistics, vol. 7, Linguistics in Sub-Saharan Africa (1971). In addition to chapters on the principal language families in Africa and their branches, this volume contains valuable studies on a dozen topics such as pidgins and creoles, orthographic systems, and language standardization, as well as a checklist of African languages and dialect names. Joseph H. Greenberg, The Languages of Africa, 3rd ed. (1970), is the culmination of a series of Greenberg's earlier works, and most contemporary scholarly research builds on this classification.Pioneering works of historical significance include Friedrich Müller, Grundriss der Sprachwissenschaft, 4 vol. in 10 parts (1876–88), which contains one of the earliest attempts at an overall classification of African languages; R. Lepsius, Nubische Grammatik: mit einer Einleitung über die Völker und Sprachen Afrika's (1880, reprinted 1981), which includes a grammar of Nubian and an introduction containing an early overall classification of African languages; and Carl Meinhof, Introduction to the Phonology of the Bantu Languages (1932, reissued 1984; originally published in German, 1899). The work of Diedrich Westermann remains of interest because of its groundbreaking recognition of the distinction between Niger-Congo and Nilo-Saharan languages and also the similarities between languages in western and southern Africa. Diedrich Westermann, Die Sudansprachen: eine sprachvergleichende Studie (1911), his first publication, shows the interrelationships of five West African and three East African languages. A later work, Diedrich Westermann and Hermann Baumann, Die westlichen Sudansprachen und ihre Beziehungen zu Bantu (1927), demonstrates that there is a closer relationship between the West Sudanic and Bantu languages. Finally, Diedrich Westermann, “Charakter und Einteilung der Sudansprachen,” Africa, 8:129–148 (April 1935), revises the author's earlier views on the Sudanic languages.Volumes in the series Handbook of African Languages, originally published by the International African Institute, give facts about a considerable number of African languages and include Clement M. Doke, Bantu: Modern Grammatical, Phonetical, and Lexicographical Studies Since 1860 (1945, reprinted 1967), and The Southern Bantu Languages (1954, reprinted 1967); Malcolm Guthrie, The Classification of the Bantu Languages (1948, reprinted 1967), and The Bantu Languages of Western Equatorial Africa (1953); Diedrich Westermann and M.A. Bryan, The Languages of West Africa, new ed. with a supplementary bibliography compiled by D.W. Arnott (1970); and Archibald N. Tucker and M.A. Bryan, The Non-Bantu Languages of North-Eastern Africa (1956). Linguistic sketches of the languages included in the Tucker/Bryan volume are found in Archibald N. Tucker and M.A. Bryan, Linguistic Analysis: The Non-Bantu Languages of North-Eastern Africa (1966).Niger-Congo languagesThe most comprehensive and authoritative description of Niger-Congo languages is John Bendor-Samuel and Rhonda L. Hartell (eds.), The Niger-Congo Languages (1989); for each of the nine primary branches of Niger-Congo—Mande, Kordofanian, Atlantic, Ijoid, Kru, Gur, Adamawa-Ubangi, Kwa, and Benue-Congo—there is a historical introduction building on the information in the Current Trends in Linguistics volume cited above. Substantial information on features of many Niger-Congo languages is given in the series Handbook of African Languages, also cited above. The most important study of Bantu is Malcolm Guthrie, Comparative Bantu: An Introduction to the Comparative Linguistics and Prehistory of the Bantu Languages, 4 vol. (1967–71). Later studies include Thomas J. Hinnebusch, Derek Nurse, and Martin Mould, Studies in the Classification of Eastern Bantu Languages (1981); E.N. Myachina (E.N. Miachina), The Swahili Language (1981; originally published in Russian, 1960), a descriptive grammar; and Derek Nurse and Thomas Spear, The Swahili: Reconstructing the History and Language of an African Society, 800–1500 (1985).The following periodicals are devoted entirely to articles on African languages, of which the overwhelming majority are concerned with Niger-Congo: African Studies (semiannual, now defunct); The Journal of West African Languages (semiannual); Afrika und Übersee (irregular); Studies in African Linguistics (quarterly); African Language Studies (1960–80); African Languages: Langues Africaines (irregular); and Journal of African Languages and Linguistics (semiannual). A number of significant articles also appear in the Sierra Leone Language Review, vol. 1–5 (1962–66), which merged with the Journal of African Languages, vol. 1–11 (1962–72) to form African Language Review, vol. 6–9 (1967–70/71); a further volume in the series, called volume 1, was published in the periodical titled simply African Languages (1975– ). African Languages and Cultures (semiannual) also has a substantial number of articles on African languages.John T. Bendor-Samuel
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