Newell, Allen

Newell, Allen
born March 19, 1927, San Francisco, Calif., U.S.
died July 19, 1992, Pittsburgh, Pa.

U.S. cognitive scientist.

He taught at Carnegie Mellon University from 1961 until his death. In the late 1950s and early 1960s he collaborated with Herbert Simon in constructing an influential model of human problem solving (Human Problem Solving, 1972). His later work was concerned with artificial intelligence, and he is known for his development of computer models of human cognition and the development of a unified theory of cognition (Unified Theories of Cognition, 1990). In 1992 he received the National Medal of Science.

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▪ American psychologist
born March 19, 1927, San Francisco, California, U.S.
died July 19, 1992, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

      American computer scientist and one of the pioneers of the science of artificial intelligence (AI).

      Following two years of service during World War II in the U.S. Navy, Newell received a bachelor's degree in physics in 1949 from Stanford University in California. In 1950, after spending a year studying mathematics at Princeton University, Newell joined the RAND Corporation in Santa Monica, California. At RAND he applied mathematical techniques from operations research and game theory to the study of administrative organizations and worked with the U.S. Air Force to simulate an early-warning radar monitoring station with its crew. In 1952 Newell's work at RAND led to the creation of the Systems Research Laboratory and the beginning of his long-term association with Herbert Simon (Simon, Herbert A.), a RAND consultant in the area of organizational analysis. Simon and Newell soon discussed how computers could be used to examine human problem-solving techniques, and by 1955 Newell's enthusiasm for the subject had convinced RAND to support him while he studied under Simon at the Carnegie Institute of Technology (now Carnegie Mellon University) in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. In 1957 Newell earned the institution's first AI-based doctoral degree.

      In 1956 Newell and Simon, together with another RAND colleague, Clifford Shaw, unveiled one of the first AI programs, the Logic Theorist. Funded primarily by the air force and run on Johnniac (a computer named for John von Neumann (von Neumann, John), one of the inventors of the digital computer), the Logic Theorist was capable of solving general logic problems, such as those found in the Principia Mathematica (1910–13) of mathematician-philosophers Bertrand Russell (Russell, Bertrand) and Alfred North Whitehead (Whitehead, Alfred North). They also invented the Information Processing Language (IPL) for programming this and other AI programs. Their next project was the General Problem Solver (GPS), which first ran in 1957. Given a problem, GPS would repeatedly apply heuristic techniques (modifiable “rules of thumb”) and then perform a “means-ends” analysis after each step to verify whether it was closer to the desired solution.

      In 1961 Newell left RAND to join the faculty at Carnegie, where he participated in the creation of one of the nation's first computer science departments. Newell's main research area lay in understanding how humans think, and he dedicated his research to building systems that would solve concrete, real-world problems. In 1972, together with Simon, Newell asserted that the essence of human cognition is the recursive generation of thoughts from goals to subgoals until a solution is finally reached. During the 1980s Newell began work (unfinished) on applying this concept to another, more sophisticated, general problem-solving program that he named Soar.

      Newell was the founding president (1979–80) of the American Association for Artificial Intelligence. He was awarded the Turing Award in 1975 and the National Medal of Science in 1992.

Michael Aaron Dennis

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Universalium. 2010.

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  • Newell, Allen — (19 mar. 1927, San Francisco, Cal., EE.UU.–19 jul. 1992, Pittsburgh, Pa.). Científico cognitivo estadounidense. Ejerció la docencia en la Universidad de Carnegie Mellon desde 1961 hasta su muerte. A fines de la década de 1950 e inicios de la de… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Allen — allén (ant.) adv. Allende. * * * allén. adv. l. p. us. allende (ǁ de la parte de allá). * * * Allen, Woody * * * (as used in expressions) Allen, Ethan Allen, Richa …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Allen Newell — Infobox Scientist name = Allen Newell image width = caption = birth date = birth date|1927|3|19|mf=y birth place = death date = death date and age|1992|7|19|1927|3|19|mf=y death place = residence = citizenship = nationality = ethnicity = field =… …   Wikipedia

  • Allen Newell — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Newell. Allen Newell, né le 19 mars 1927, mort le 19 juillet 1992 (à 65 ans), était un chercheur en informatique et psychologie cognitive à la compagnie RAND Corporation et à la Carnegie… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Newell — (as used in expressions) Newell Allen Wyeth Andrew Newell Wyeth Newell Convers * * * …   Universalium

  • Allen — /al euhn/, n. 1. (Charles) Grant (Blairfindie) /blair fin dee/, ( Cecil Power, J. Arbuthnot Wilson ), 1848 99, British philosophical writer and novelist. 2. Ethan, 1738 89, American soldier in the Revolutionary War: leader of the Green Mountain… …   Universalium

  • Newell — (as used in expressions) Newell, Allen Wyeth, Andrew (Newell) Wyeth, N(ewell) C(onvers) …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Allen Newell — Nombre Allen Newell Nacimiento 19 de marzo …   Wikipedia Español

  • Allen Newell — (* 19. März 1927 in San Francisco; † 19. Juli 1992 in Pittsburgh) war ein US amerikanischer Informatiker und Kognitionspsychologe. Newell gilt als einer der Väter der künstlichen Intelligenz und der Kognitionswissenschaft. Newell studierte Physik …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Newell Convers Wyeth — Newell Convers Wyeth, um 1903/04 Newell Convers Wyeth, um 1920 Newell Convers Wyeth, bekannt als N. C. Wyeth (* 22. Oktober 1882 in …   Deutsch Wikipedia

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