- Mekong River
Chinese Lancang Jiang or Lan-Ts'ang ChiangLongest river of Southeast Asia.Rising in eastern Tibet, China, it flows south across the highlands of Yunnan province. It then forms part of the border between Myanmar (Burma) and Laos, as well as between Laos and Thailand. It runs through Laos and Cambodia before entering the China Sea in a delta south of Ho Chi Minh City in Vietnam after a course of 2,700 mi (4,350 km). Vientiane and Phnom Penh stand on its banks. Its lower course has about one-third of the combined population of Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, and Vietnam. In 1957 the UN initiated the Mekong River Development Project, an international effort to harness the river for hydroelectricity and irrigation.
* * *IntroductionCambodian Mékôngk , Laotian Mènam Khong , Thai Mae Nam Khong , Vietnamese Sông Tiên Giang , Chinese (Pinyin) Lancang Jiang or (Wade-Giles) Lan-ts'ang Chianglongest river in Southeast Asia, the 7th longest in Asia, and the 12th longest in the world. It has a length of about 2,700 miles (4,350 km). Rising in southeastern Qinghai province, China, it flows through the eastern part of the Tibet Autonomous Region and Yunnan province, after which it forms part of the international border between Myanmar (Burma) and Laos, as well as between Laos and Thailand. The river then flows through Laos, Cambodia, and Vietnam before draining into the South China Sea south of Ho Chi Minh City (formerly Saigon). Vientiane (Viangchan), the capital of Laos, and Phnom Penh, the capital of Cambodia, both stand on its banks. About three-fourths of the drainage area of the Mekong lies within the four countries the river traverses on its lower course—Laos, Thailand, Cambodia, and Vietnam.Physical featuresThe Mekong River drains more than 313,000 square miles (810,000 square km) of land, stretching from the Plateau of Tibet (Tibet, Plateau of) to the South China Sea. Among Asian rivers, only the Yangtze and Ganges have larger minimum flows.The contrast between the physical conditions that prevail above and below the Mekong's descent from the Yunnan highlands divide it into two major parts. The upper Mekong flows 1,215 miles (1,955 km) through a long, narrow valley comprising roughly one-fourth of the total area, cutting through the mountains and plateaus of southwestern China. The lower Mekong, below the point where it forms the border between Myanmar and Laos, is a stream 1,485 miles (2,390 km) in length draining the Khorat Plateau of northeastern Thailand, the western slopes of the Annamese Cordillera in Laos and Vietnam, and most of Cambodia, before reaching the sea through the distributary channels of its delta in southern Vietnam.In its upper reaches, the Mekong rises in the Tibetan Plateau between the Salween and Yangtze rivers; the streambed has cut deeply into the rugged landscape through which it flows. Along its course between Myanmar and Laos, the Mekong drains about 8,000 square miles (21,000 square km) of territory in Myanmar, comprising rough and relatively inaccessible terrain. In its more gentle lower stretches, where for a considerable distance it constitutes the boundary between Laos and Thailand, the Mekong inspires both conflict and cooperation among Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, and Vietnam.PhysiographyThe sources of the Mekong, including its principal headstream, the Za Qu River, rise at an elevation of more than 16,000 feet (4,900 metres) on the north slope of the Tanggula Mountains in Qinghai province. They flow southeast through the Qamdo (Chamdo) region of Tibet, where the Za Qu joins other headstreams to form the main stream, called the Lancang in Chinese. It descends south across the highlands of Yunnan, through which it carves a deep valley, to a point south of Jinghong, where it briefly marks the border between Myanmar and China. The river then bends southwest; over a reach of more than 125 miles (200 km) it forms the Myanmarese-Laotian border. Although two great roads cross it—the caravan route from the southeast to Lhasa and the road from Kunming to Myanmar—much of the river valley in the highlands of Tibet and Yunnan is remote and sparsely populated.Below Myanmar, the river basin may be divided into six major sections on the basis of landforms, vegetation, and soils: the northern highlands, Khorat Plateau, eastern highlands, southern lowlands, southern highlands, and delta. Most of the vegetation in the lower basin is of the tropical broad-leaved variety, although the occurrence of individual species varies with latitude and topography.The northern highlands have highly folded ranges that reach elevations of about 9,000 feet (2,700 metres) above sea level, many with steep slopes. As far south as Vientiane, these dissected uplands (i.e., cut by erosion into hills and valleys) are covered with dense deciduous forest that has deteriorated as a result of frequent cutting and burning for shifting cultivation. The Mekong's important tributaries in this region include the Tha (Tha River), the Ou (Ou River), and the Ngum rivers, all draining northern Laos.To the south of the east-west course of the river below Vientiane lies the Khorat Plateau, which embraces almost all of the Thai portion of the basin as well as the lower parts of the Mekong's Laotian tributaries. This is an area of gently rolling hills set amid relatively flat alluvial plains. Soils and deciduous vegetation on the hills are thin, and much of the original forest has been replaced by grassland as a result of grazing and repeated burning. The Songkhram River drains the northern part of the plateau and enters the Mekong above Tha Uthen in Thailand. The Mun River—one of the Mekong's most important tributaries—drains the majority of the plateau and joins the Mekong at Ban Dan, Thailand.The eastern highlands form part of the Annamese Cordillera, from which streams drain west into the Mekong. Throughout most of the distance between Ky Son (Muong Sen) in northern Vietnam and Ban Hèt in southern Laos, the watershed forms the border between Vietnam to the east and Laos to the west. There is greater relief in the northern than the southern parts of the watershed, but the highlands in general are characterized by rapid streams that flow through narrow valleys before entering the lowlands bordering the Mekong. The Mekong's most important tributaries in this region are the Kading, the Bangfai, the Banghiang, and the Kong—which, with its affluent the San, drains a large area of southern Laos, central Vietnam, and eastern Cambodia. Forest degradation, which has resulted from lumbering, shifting cultivation, and grazing, is widespread in this region.The southern lowlands border both sides of the Mekong below Pakxé (Pakse) in Laos. The Mekong enters Cambodia with a sudden plunge at Khone Falls. Between the falls and Krâchéh there are rapids interspersed with alluvial plains. Below Kâmpóng Cham the river's gradient becomes gentle, and it flows through wide stretches of alluvium in its floodplain. Near Phnom Penh a junction occurs between the Mekong and the Sab River, which connects it to the Tonle Sap, sometimes called the Great Lake. The direction of flow of the Sab River varies according to the season. During the peak flood season, when the level of the Mekong is high, waters flow through the Sab River to the lake, which then expands from a little more than 1,000 square miles (2,600 square km) to a maximum of about 4,000 square miles (10,400 square km). In the dry season when the floods subside, the Sab reverses its flow to drain southeastward into the Mekong. The Tonle Sap is a highly productive fishing ground.The Dâmrei (Dâmrei Mountains) (Elephant) and Krâvanh (Krâvanh Mountains) (Cardamom) mountains in southwestern Cambodia constitute the southern highlands. Several streams flow from these uplands into the Tonle Sap.The river divides into two branches below Phnom Penh: the Mekong proper and the Bassac (Basak). Below this point the delta spreads out to the sea. It has a total area of about 25,000 square miles (65,000 square km) and can be divided into three major sections. The upper section, above Chau Doc (Chau Phu), has strong natural levees (embankments built on either side of the river by accumulated deposits of silt) behind which are low, wide depressions. The middle section has some areas that are well drained, others that are poorly drained and swampy. Along the lower section, formed by the river mouths and by the area to the southwest, sediment carried down from the upper river is in the process of being deposited, and the flooding is less extreme than in the upper sections of the delta. The area north of the Ca Mau Peninsula is forested and swampy.Climate and hydrologyThe Mekong's flow comes chiefly from rainfall in its lower basin, which fluctuates seasonally with the monsoon winds. In April the flow is ordinarily at its lowest. In May or June—as the rain-bearing southerly monsoon winds arrive—the flow begins to increase, with an especially rapid increase in the eastern and northern highlands. The Mekong's highest water levels occur as early as August or September in the upper reaches and as late as October in the southern reaches. The northeasterly monsoon wind, beginning ordinarily in November in the southern areas, brings dry weather until May. During the long dry period, rice cultivation is impossible without irrigation, and the river's waters are vital to agricultural production.Temperatures in the lower Mekong basin are uniformly warm throughout the year. Daily highs at Phnom Penh average 89 °F (32 °C), and lows average 74 °F (23 °C). In the upper basin, temperatures are moderated somewhat by altitude and generally are lower and exhibit more seasonal variation than those found farther south.The mean annual flow of the river at Krâchéh in Cambodia is about 500,000 cubic feet (14,200 cubic metres) per second, which is about twice the flow of the Columbia River in North America. The recorded minimum at Krâchéh is about one-twelfth of the mean, and the annual peak flow about four times the mean. Below Krâchéh the peak flows diminish as the water spreads out into the distributary channels and backswamps.The recorded annual sediment load is highest at Pakxé, where it amounts to some 187 million tons; it is about half that amount at the Myanmarese border and about two-thirds that at Phnom Penh.PeopleA substantial majority of the people who live along the Mekong River are engaged in agriculture, and rice is the major crop. The heaviest population concentrations are in the delta and on the Khorat Plateau. The small urban population has been growing rapidly, chiefly through migration to the capital cities.The peoples of the basin are diverse. Most residents of the uppermost Mekong Valley are Tibetan. South of the Tibetan Highlands, the peoples of the river basin fall into two broad cultural groupings. The hill peoples subsist mainly through shifting cultivation, and have traditionally formed small, kin-based social units, while the lowland peoples, who practice sedentary agriculture, have formed complex state societies. The hill peoples speak languages belonging to five different language families: Tibeto-Burman (Tibeto-Burman languages) (including the Yi, Hani, and Lisu of Yunnan), Tai (Tai languages) (including the Shan of Myanmar and the so-called Black Tai and Red Tai of Laos and Yunnan), Hmong-Mien (Hmong-Mien languages) (including the Hmong (Miao) of Laos and Yunnan), Austronesian (Austronesian languages), and Mon-Khmer (Mon-Khmer languages) (including the diverse Montagnard peoples of Vietnam). The lowland peoples, however, form the majority of the population, and most belong to one of the dominant ethnic groups of the region's nations. These include the Han Chinese of Yunnan, whose language is distantly related to the Tibeto-Burman languages, the Lao of Laos and the Thai of Thailand, both speaking languages in the Tai family, and the Vietnamese of Vietnam and the Khmer of Cambodia, Vietnam, and Thailand, both speaking Mon-Khmer languages. The Cham, a minority lowland people of Vietnam and Cambodia, speak an Austronesian language.EconomyIrrigation and flood controlIn the lower basin, flood control and water management offer major opportunities to increase economic productivity. Farmers practicing shifting cultivation on the uplands and the rice growers on the rain-fed lowlands are able, under normal conditions, to grow only one crop a year, taking advantage of wet-season precipitation. Half of the cultivated land is dependent upon some form of inundation by flood waters. Control of water, however, makes it possible to store water during the dry season and to use this water to produce a second or third crop. In addition, irrigation combined with flood control has improved the cultivable land by reducing the losses and delays caused by floodwaters pouring over the river's banks. Where storage facilities and the degree of downward slope are favourable, small-scale hydroelectric power facilities have been developed.Much of this development work has been undertaken under the auspices of the Interim Committee for Coordination of Investigations of the Lower Mekong Basin (Mekong Committee), organized in 1957 by Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, and South Vietnam. (After 1975 Vietnam replaced South Vietnam on the committee, and Cambodia ceased to participate, although Cambodia has resumed membership since 1991.) The committee has sponsored a series of preinvestment and general scientific investigations and has undertaken construction of a number of water projects. These projects include the multipurpose dam near Nam Phong in northeastern Thailand and the hydroelectric dam at Nam Ngum in Laos. The countries of the commission have continued to cooperate despite the political stresses produced by the war in Vietnam and its aftermath and have enlisted the assistance of other countries and international organizations.NavigationThere is an elaborate system of canals in the Vietnamese part of the delta. Smaller seagoing vessels can sail upstream as far as Phnom Penh, and vessels drawing almost 15 feet (5 metres) can reach Kâmpóng Cham during high water. Continuous water transport is blocked chiefly by the barriers of the Khone Falls and other falls between Sâmbor and Pakxé, and upstream uses of the river are limited to local traffic. Navigational conditions on the Mekong's main stream and on some of its tributaries also have been improved through the activities of the Mekong Committee.Study and exploration (Earth exploration)A rich literature describing the upper and lower Mekong basins has existed for some time, but until the 1950s the river's resources were treated chiefly in local studies of navigational access to urban areas. Following the organization of the Mekong Committee, information on the river was consolidated, and in the late 1960s a bibliography and atlas were published. In the 1950s, surveys of the lower Mekong were carried out by the Bureau of Flood Control of the United Nations Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East (later renamed the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific) and the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, and in the early 1960s a new program for integrated study took shape under the Mekong Committee.Investigations undertaken have included basic mapping, hydrologic observations, flood forecasting, soil surveys, fisheries studies, health studies, engineering-feasibility studies, power-market surveys, and agricultural research and pilot farms. The engineering studies have provided reconnaissance appraisal of all the tributary basins and a more detailed examination of selected projects. The focus of Mekong development as a whole has shifted since the mid-1970s to planning comprehensive programs for agricultural and community development in areas where water supply was available, with each country working out its individual financial arrangements.Additional ReadingUnited Nations, Atlas of Physical, Economic, and Social Resources of the Lower Mekong Basin (1968), includes maps of resources and a descriptive text. C. Hart Schaaf and Russell H. Fifield, The Lower Mekong: Challenge to Cooperation in Southeast Asia (1963); W.R. Derrick Sewell and Gilbert F. White, The Lower Mekong: An Experiment in International River Development (1966); and Gilbert F. White et al., Economic and Social Aspects of Lower Mekong Development (1962), are reviews of early planning for the lower basin. A later comprehensive plan for the lower basin is surveyed in Interim Committee for Coordination of Investigations of Lower Mekong Basin, Perspectives for Mekong Development (1988). Committee for Coordination of Investigations of the Lower Mekong Basin, Mekong Work Programme 1993: Ongoing and Proposed Projects (1992), outlines basinwide programs for the planning and development of water and related resources (e.g., agriculture, fisheries, and transport).Gilbert F. White Jeffrey W. Jacobs
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