Louis XIII style

Louis XIII style
Style of the visual arts produced in France during the reign of Louis XIII, including the regency of his mother, Marie de Médicis, who introduced much of the art of her native Italy.

The Mannerism of Italy and Flanders was so influential that a true French style did not develop until the mid-17th century, when the influence of Caravaggio was assimilated by Georges de La Tour and the Le Nain brothers, and the influence of the Carracci brothers was extended by Simon Vouet, who trained the academic painters of the next generation. The sculpture of the period was undistinguished. The most prolific area of the arts was architecture. Here, too, the Italian influence is seen, as in the Palais de Justice at Rennes and the Luxembourg Palace in Paris, both designed by Salomon de Brosse, and the chapel of the Sorbonne in Paris, designed by Jacques Lemercier. The furniture of the period is typically massive and solidly built and commonly decorated with cherubs, ornate scrollwork, fruit-and-flower swags, and grotesque masks.

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      visual arts produced in France during the reign of Louis XIII (1601–43). Louis was but a child when he ascended the throne in 1610, and his mother, Marie De Médicis, assumed the powers of regent. Having close ties with Italy, Marie introduced much of the art of that country into her court. The Mannerist influences from Italy and from Flanders were so great that a true French style did not develop until the second quarter of the century. At that time the Italian influences of the painter Caravaggio were assimilated into a new interest in genre scenes, notably in the work of Georges de la Tour and the brothers Le Nain—Antoine, Louis, and Mathieu. The main French tradition in painting, however, was carried on under the influence of the Italian Carracci brothers by Simon Vouet (Vouet, Simon). It was Vouet who trained the academic painters of the next generation, though the work of Nicolas Poussin (Poussin, Nicolas) proved to be the greater influence on later French painting.

      Sculpture (Western sculpture) in France during this period was not of outstanding quality. Those working in this area included Jacques Sarrazin and Jean Warin, competent craftsmen but lacking the great talents that flourished under Louis XIV.

      Perhaps the most prolific area for the arts under Marie de Médicis and Louis XIII was the field of architecture (Western architecture). Salomon de Brosse (Brosse, Salomon de), the chief architect, designed both the Palais de Justice at Rennes and, for Marie de Médicis, the Palais du Luxembourg in Paris (begun 1615). As in the other arts, the Italian influence was felt, notably in the work of Jacques Lemercier (Lemercier, Jacques), who designed works for the powerful Cardinal de Richelieu, including the Church of the Sorbonne in Paris (begun 1635). It was not, however, until the next king's rule that French architecture reached its greatest heights, as in the work of François Mansart.

      The furniture of the Louis XIII period, typically massive and solidly built, is characterized by carving and turning (shaping on a lathe). Common decorative motifs found on it include cherubs, ornate scrollwork, cartouches (ornamental frames), fruit-and-flower swags, and grotesque masks.

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Universalium. 2010.

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