orig. Valerius Licinianus Liciniusdied 325Roman emperor (308–324).Born of Illyrian peasant stock, he advanced in the army and in 308 was appointed augustus by his friend the emperor Galerius. Because the empire was split up among several emperors at that time (see tetrarch), his domain was confined to Pannonia. After the death of Galerius in 311, he allied with Constantine I, defeated his competitor Maximinus in Asia Minor, and partitioned the empire (313). Although reputedly converted to Christianity, he grew alienated and launched a campaign of mild persecution against the Christians с 320. Constantine soon drove him from power and had him executed.II(as used in expressions)Valerius Licinianus LiciniusPublius Licinius ValerianusCrassus Lucius LiciniusCrassus Marcus LiciniusGallienus Publius Licinius EgnatiusLucullus Lucius Licinius
* * *▪ Roman emperorin full Valerius Licinianus Liciniusdied 325Roman emperor from 308 to 324.Born of Illyrian peasant stock, Licinius advanced in the army and was suddenly elevated to the rank of augustus (November 308) by his friend Galerius, who had become emperor. Galerius hoped to have him rule the West, but since Italy, Africa, and Spain were held by the usurper Maxentius, while Constantine reigned in Gaul and Britain, Licinius had to content himself with ruling Pannonia. When Galerius died in 311, Licinius took over Galerius' European dominions. He married Constantine's half sister Constantia (313) and in the same year defeated the Eastern emperor Maximinus (Maximinus, Galerius Valerius) at Tzurulum, east of Adrianople, Thrace, pursuing him into Asia, where Maximinus died. Licinius thus added the entire eastern half of the empire to his dominion.After a brief accord between the two augusti, Constantine (Constantine I) forced Licinius to surrender the provinces of Pannonia and Moesia. There followed 10 years of uneasy peace in which Licinius built up his army and accumulated a huge reserve of treasure. In 324 Constantine defeated him at Adrianople and again at Chrysopolis (now Üsküdar, Tur.). Licinius surrendered, was exiled to Thessalonica, and was executed the next year on a charge of attempted rebellion.During the campaign against Maximinus, Licinius had made his army use a monotheistic form of prayer closely resembling that later imposed by Constantine. On June 5, 313, he had issued an edict granting toleration to the Christians and restoring church property. Hence his contemporaries, the Latin writer Lactantius and Bishop Eusebius, hailed him as a convert. But he eventually became alienated from the Christians and about 320 initiated a mild form of persecution.
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