Kornberg, Arthur

Kornberg, Arthur
born March 3, 1918, Brooklyn, N.Y., U.S.

U.S. biochemist and physician.

He studied at the University of Rochester. In 1959 he joined the faculty at Stanford University. While studying how living organisms manufacture nucleotides, his research led him to the problem of how nucleotides are strung together to form DNA molecules. Adding radioactive nucleotides to an enzyme mixture prepared from cultures of E. coli, he found evidence of a reaction catalyzed by the enzyme that adds nucleotides to a preexisting DNA chain. He was the first to accomplish the cell-free synthesis of DNA. He shared a 1959 Nobel Prize with Severo Ochoa.

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▪ 2008

      American biochemist and physician

born March 3, 1918 , Brooklyn, N.Y.

died Oct. 26, 2007, Stanford, Calif.
received (with Severo Ochoa) the 1959 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for discovering the means by which DNA molecules are duplicated in the bacterial cell, as well as the means for reconstructing this duplication process in a test tube. At the U.S. National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Md., Kornberg directed research (1942–53) on enzymes and intermediary metabolism. He also helped discover the chemical reactions in the cell that result in the construction of flavine adenine dinucleotide (FAD) and diphosphopyridine nucleotide (DPN), coenzymes that are important hydrogen-carrying intermediaries in biological oxidations and reductions. While serving (1953–59) as professor and director of the microbiology department at Washington University, St. Louis, Mo., he continued to study the way in which living organisms manufacture nucleotides, the building blocks for the giant nucleic acids DNA and RNA. This research led Kornberg directly to the problem of how nucleotides are strung together (polymerized) to form DNA molecules. Adding nucleotides “labeled” with radioactive isotopes to extracts prepared from cultures of the common intestinal bacterium Escherichia coli, he found (1956) evidence of an enzyme-catalyzed polymerization reaction. He isolated and purified an enzyme (known as DNA polymerase) that, in combination with certain nucleotide building blocks, could produce precise replicas of short DNA molecules (known as primers) in a test tube. Kornberg became (1959) a professor of biochemistry at Stanford University, serving (1959–69) as department chairman. His writings included Enzymatic Synthesis of DNA (1961). Kornberg's son Roger D. Kornberg won the 2006 Nobel Prize for Chemistry. They became the sixth father-son tandem to win Nobel Prizes.

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▪ American scientist
born March 3, 1918, Brooklyn, N.Y., U.S.
died Oct. 26, 2007, Stanford, Calif.
 American biochemist and physician who received (with Severo Ochoa (Ochoa, Severo)) the 1959 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for discovering the means by which deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) (DNA) molecules are duplicated in the bacterial cell, as well as the means for reconstructing this duplication process in the test tube.

      At the U.S. National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Md. (1942–53), Kornberg directed research on enzymes and intermediary metabolism. He also helped discover the chemical reactions in the cell that result in the construction of flavine adenine dinucleotide (FAD) and diphosphopyridine nucleotide (DPN), coenzymes that are important hydrogen-carrying intermediaries in biological oxidations and reductions.

      Appointed professor and director of the microbiology department at Washington University, St. Louis, Mo. (1953–59), he continued to study the way in which living organisms manufacture nucleotides (nucleotide), which consist of a nitrogen-containing organic base linked to a five-carbon sugar ring—ribose or deoxyribose—linked to a phosphate group. Nucleotides are the building blocks for the giant nucleic acids DNA and RNA (ribonucleic acid, which is essential to the construction of cell proteins according to the specifications dictated by the “message” contained in DNA).

      This research led Kornberg directly to the problem of how nucleotides are strung together (polymerized) to form DNA molecules. Adding nucleotides “labeled” with radioactive isotopes to extracts prepared from cultures of the common intestinal bacterium Escherichia coli, he found (1956) evidence of an enzyme-catalyzed polymerization reaction. He isolated and purified an enzyme (now known as DNA polymerase) that—in combination with certain nucleotide building blocks—could produce precise replicas of short DNA molecules (known as primers) in a test tube.

      Kornberg became a professor of biochemistry at Stanford University, Palo Alto, Calif., in 1959. From 1959 to 1969 he was department chairman. His writings include Enzymatic Synthesis of DNA (1961). Kornberg's son Roger D. Kornberg (Kornberg, Roger D.) won the 2006 Nobel Prize for Chemistry. They became the sixth father-son tandem to win Nobel Prizes.

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Universalium. 2010.

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  • Kornberg,Arthur — Korn·berg (kôrnʹbûrg ), Arthur. Born 1918. American biochemist. He shared a 1959 Nobel Prize for work on the biological synthesis of nucleic acids. * * * …   Universalium

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  • Kornberg, Arthur — ► (n. 1918) Biólogo estadounidense. Fue premio Nobel de Medicina y Fisiología en 1959, compartido con Severo Ochoa, por sus trabajos sobre la síntesis de ácidos nucleicos. * * * (n. 3 mar. 1918, Brooklyn, N.Y., EE.UU.). Médico y bioquímico… …   Enciclopedia Universal

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  • Arthur Kornberg — (* 3. März 1918 in Brooklyn, New York City, USA; † 26. Oktober 2007 in Stanford, Kalifornien) war ein US amerikanischer Biochemiker. Zusammen mit Severo Ochoa erhielt er 1959 den …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Arthur Kornberg — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Arthur Kornberg Arthur Kornberg (Brooklyn, Nueva York, 3 de marzo de 1918 26 de octubre de 2007) fue un bioquímico estadounidense. Estudió Medicina …   Wikipedia Español

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