Klemperer, Otto

Klemperer, Otto
born May 14, 1885, Breslau, Ger.
died July 6, 1973, Zürich, Switz.

German conductor.

After studying composition with Hans Pfitzner (1869–1949), in 1905 he met Gustav Mahler, who recommended him for several positions, including chief conductor at the Hamburg Opera (1910). At the short-lived Kroll Opera (1927–31) he conducted the Berlin premieres of many important works by contemporary composers. In 1933 he fled Germany for the U.S., conducting in Los Angeles (1933–39) and studying with Arnold Schoenberg. A brain tumour in 1939 left him partly paralyzed. From the 1950s, though seated on the podium, he created a much-admired recorded legacy with London's Philharmonia Orchestra.

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▪ German conductor
born May 14, 1885, Breslau, Ger. [now Wrocław, Pol.]
died July 6, 1973, Zürich, Switz.
 one of the outstanding German conductors of his time.

      Klemperer studied in Frankfurt and Berlin and on the recommendation of Gustav Mahler (Mahler, Gustav) was made conductor of the German National Theatre at Prague in 1907. Between 1910 and 1927 he conducted opera at Hamburg, Barmen, Strassburg, Cologne, and Wiesbaden. In 1927 he became director of the Kroll Opera in Berlin, where he expanded the repertory to include works by Paul Hindemith (Hindemith, Paul), Ernst Krenek (Krenek, Ernst), and Igor Stravinsky (Stravinsky, Igor). He was conductor of the Los Angeles Philharmonic Orchestra (1933–39) and of the Budapest Opera (1947–50). In his later years he was especially known for his interpretations of the symphonies of Ludwig van Beethoven (Beethoven, Ludwig van), Anton Bruckner (Bruckner, Anton), and Mahler, as well as for his updated versions of core repertory, such as Beethoven's opera Fidelio (1805; revised versions 1806, 1814). At age 70 Klemperer began one of the most acclaimed periods of his career, as music director (1955–71) of the Philharmonia/New Philharmonia Orchestra in London, with which he made many recordings. His own compositions include an opera (Das Ziel [1915; revised 1970]), 9 string quartets, 6 symphonies, 17 pieces for voice and orchestra, and songs. Klemperer's views on music can be found in a collection edited by Martin Anderson, Klemperer on Music: Shavings from a Musician's Workbench (1986), as well as in Conversations with Klemperer, rev. ed. (1985), compiled and edited by Peter Heyworth.

Additional Reading
Peter Heyworth, Otto Klemperer, His Life and Times, 2 vol. (1996).

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Universalium. 2010.

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