- Kamakura period
(1192–1333) Period of Japanese history marked by the country's first era of military government.The Kamakura shogunate was established by Minamoto Yoritomo after his 1185 defeat of a rival warrior family, the Taira (see Taira Kiyomori); its headquarters was in Kamakura. To assert his authority, Yoritomo had jitō (stewards) assigned to all the estates (shōen) in the land to collect taxes, and shugo (protectors) assigned to one or more provinces to lead them in times of war. This system was improved by the Hōjō family, which took control of the shogunate on Yoritomo's death. The creation of the Kamakura shogunate marks the start of Japan's medieval or feudal period, characterized by a warrior ethic of duty, loyalty, and stoicism. Many elements of Japanese culture that Westerners now associate with the countrydate from this period. The True Pure Land and Nichiren sects of Buddhism, which emphasized salvation through faith alone, provided solace to the masses, while tales of warrior exploits provided them with entertainment. See also bushidō.
* * *▪ Japanese historyin Japanese history, the period from 1192 to 1333 during which the basis of feudalism was firmly established. It was named for the city where Minamoto Yoritomo set up the headquarters of his military government, commonly known as the Kamakura shogunate. After his decisive victory over the rival Taira family at the battle of Dannoura (1185), Yoritomo created his own military administration (bakufu (shogunate)) to serve beside the imperial court. In 1192 his authority was given imperial sanction when he was granted the official rank of shogun (hereditary military dictator). After Yoritomo's death in 1199, however, real power in the bakufu was wielded by members of the Hōjō Family who acted as shogunal regents for the remainder of the period. Two invasion attempts by the Mongols in 1274 and 1281 were thwarted by Japanese warriors with the aid of the “divine wind” (kamikaze) of typhoons that decimated the enemy fleet. The financial strain imposed by the defense efforts against the Mongol attacks, however, exacerbated internal weaknesses in the regime. The revolt of the emperor Go-Daigo (Daigo, Go-) against the Kamakura shogunate in 1331 and ensuing factional struggles led to the collapse of the bakufu in 1333.Kamakura culture was largely defined by the rise of the warrior class, which held martial skills and the ideals of duty, loyalty, and bravery in the highest regard. The practice of ritual suicide by disembowelment (seppuku) and the cult of the sword both emerged during this period. Zen Buddhism, which emphasized discipline, concentration, and direct action, became influential as it appealed to warrior sensibilities, while the new faith sects of True Pure Land and Nichiren Buddhism found followers among the populace. In literature military chronicles that romantically depicted the heroic but often unsuccessful exploits of famous warriors developed into an important genre.
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