- Gregory of Tours, Saint
orig. Georgius Florentiusborn Nov. 30?, 538/539, Clermont, Aquitaine?died Nov. 17, 594?, Tours, NeustriaFrankish bishop and writer.Born into an aristocratic family that had produced several bishops of what is today central France, Gregory succeeded his cousin as bishop of Tours in 573. He was involved in numerous political events and in open dispute with the king, Chilperic I. His fame rests on his History of the Franks, a chief source for knowledge of the 6th-century Franco-Roman kingdom. His other writings, including Lives of the Fathers, on the lives of saints, and seven books of miracles, afford unique evidence of religious and social life in Merovingian France.
* * *▪ Frankish scholaroriginal name Georgius Florentiusborn November 30?, 538/539, Clermont, Aquitaine? [now France]died November 17, 594?, Tours, Neustria [now France]; feast day November 17bishop and writer whose Ten Books of Histories (often wrongly called The History of the Franks) is the major 6th-century source for studying the Merovingian (Merovingian dynasty) kingdom of the Franks.Gregory's family was prominent in both religious and political affairs. On his father's side he claimed descent from Vectius Epagathus, a martyr in the persecution at Lyon in 177. His uncle Gallus was bishop of Clermont. His mother's family included bishops of Langres (notably, his great-grandfather Gregory, who previously was the count of Autun) and bishops of Lyon (most notably, his uncle Nicetius). Gregory also claimed to be related to 13 bishops of Tours and to many senators (though the latter term is ambiguous).After his father's death, Gregory lived with Gallus, then with Nicetius in Lyon, where he became a deacon. Although he may have expected the bishopric of Lyon, Gregory was instead appointed the bishop of Tours by King Sigebert (Sigebert I) and Queen Brunhild in 573. The transitions are reflected in his religious devotion: initially Gregory was a follower of Julian, martyr of the Auvergne, whose capital was Clermont; after his appointment to Tours, he wholeheartedly promoted the cult of St. Martin (Martin of Tours, Saint), about whom he wrote four books of “miracle stories.”The world in which Gregory became bishop was complex. The Merovingian (Merovingian dynasty) realm was usually divided into several kingdoms, and when Gregory was appointed bishop Tours was ruled by Sigebert, the king of East Francia, whose power centre was the Reims/Metz region of modern-day France. Following Sigebert's murder in 575, Tours fell under the control of his brother, Chilperic (Chilperic I), ruler of the west Frankish kingdom, based in Soissons. When Chilperic was murdered in 584, a third brother, Guntram, the king of Burgundy, ruled Tours. In 587, however, he ceded Tours to Sigebert's son, Childebert II.In traversing this complex political landscape, Gregory had to find a way to work with Chilperic following Sigebert's murder. The bishop's criticism of Chilperic's queen, Fredegund, was exploited by Gregory's enemies, and he was tried for slander at the council of Berny-Rivière in 580. Partly because of the intervention of his friend Venantius Fortunatus (Fortunatus, Venantius), who delivered a poetic panegyric of Chilperic at the time of the trial, Gregory was acquitted. Yet, despite this episode and Gregory's criticism of Chilperic (whom he called “the Nero and Herod of our time” following the king's death), both men were able to work together. In his narrative, Gregory describes Guntram in more fulsome terms, largely because of the king's piety. Nevertheless, he found Guntram difficult to deal with, not least because of the suspicions of those around him. Those suspicions were not unfounded, however, and Gregory suggests that there was much secret politicking between the various factions at the courts of Chilperic, Guntram, and Childebert and that the bishop of Tours himself was deeply involved.Politics also spilled over into Gregory's performance of his religious duties, especially his dealings with the nunnery of the Holy Cross in Poitiers, which had been founded by Queen Radegunda (Radegunda, Saint). The revolt against the abbess Leubovera by several princesses who had joined the nunnery became a real cause célèbre in 589–90. Gregory was one of a group of bishops sent to deal with the affair, which he describes in some length in his Histories.Gregory's involvement in the Poitiers crisis is a reminder of his role as bishop. There is no evidence that he attended church councils, but his writings demonstrate his concern with church legislation, especially Sunday work. In addition to promoting the cults of numerous saints, he also restored churches in his diocese.Notwithstanding his importance in 6th-century Francia, Gregory is best remembered for his writings, especially his Histories, on which he worked until shortly before his death. Although he insisted that all 10 books be transmitted together, an abridged version of the first 6 circulated in the 7th century. For many years scholars mistakenly believed that version had been prepared by Gregory.In his Histories Gregory refers to his other works: seven books of miracles, a collection of 20 hagiographies, titled the Life of the Fathers, and the books On the Offices of the Church and a Commentary on the Psalms (which includes a preface on masses composed by Sidonius Apollinaris). In addition, modern scholars attribute to Gregory Miracles of the Blessed Apostle Andrew and an account of the Seven Sleepers of Ephesus. Gregory's Histories provide invaluable insight into the political life of his age, and his hagiographies illuminate the age's religious and social life, especially the cult of saints in Merovingian Gaul.Gregory's writings also reveal much about the changes in the Latin language. Although there are problems in differentiating the exact grammar and orthography used by Gregory from that used by his copyists, his writing differed radically from classical Latin in spelling and case endings. Gregory was aware of these differences, but his mother convinced him that his style would make his writings accessible to a wider readership. Unquestionably, Gregory is a vivid teller of tales, but his writings are far from artless. Beneath their idiosyncratic grammar and style, Gregory's works are carefully constructed and rhetorically sophisticated, conveying profound religious and spiritual messages.Ian Nicholas WoodAdditional ReadingThe standard edition of Gregory's works is Bruno Krusch and Wilhelm Levison (eds.), Gregorii Episcopi Turonensis Historiarum libri X, editionem alteram (1937-51), vol. 1 of the Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Scriptores rerum Merovingicarum. Rudolf Buchner (ed.), Zehn Bücher Geschichten, 2 vol. (1955–56), is an alternative edition. There are two English translations of the Histories: the more accessible is Lewis Thorpe, The History of the Franks (1974, reissued 1986); but a better introduction and commentary are found in O.M. Dalton, The History of the Franks, 2 vol. (1927, reprinted 1967). Translations of other works are included in Raymond Van Dam, Saints and Their Miracles in Late Antique Gaul (1993); and in the Translated Texts for Historians series from Liverpool University Press. Ian Wood, The Merovingian Kingdoms, 450–751 (1994), provides background information. Gregory and his writings are examined in Walter Goffart, The Narrators of Barbarian History (A.D. 550–800) (1988); Adrian H.B. Breukelaar, Historiography and Episcopal Authority in Sixth-Century Gaul (1994); and Ian Wood, Gregory of Tours (1994).
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