Fuentes, Carlos

Fuentes, Carlos
born Nov. 11, 1928, Mexico City, Mex.

Mexican writer and diplomat.

The son of a career diplomat, he traveled widely before studying law and entering the diplomatic service. He is best known for his experimental novels. His first, Where the Air Is Clear (1958), a bitter indictment of Mexican society, won him national prestige. The Death of Artemio Cruz (1962), about the final hours of an unscrupulous former revolutionary, made his international reputation. Among his later novels are Terra Nostra (1975), The Hydra Head (1978), The Old Gringo (1985), and The Years with Laura Díaz (1999). "The Buried Mirror" (1992) is a long essay on Hispanic cultures.

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▪ Mexican writer and diplomat
born November 11, 1928, Panama City, Panama
 Mexican novelist, short-story writer, playwright, critic, and diplomat whose experimental novels won him an international literary reputation.

      The son of a Mexican career diplomat, Fuentes was born in Panama and traveled extensively with his family in North and South America and in Europe. He learned English at age four in Washington, D.C. As a young man, he studied law at the University of Mexico in Mexico City and later attended the Institute of Advanced International Studies in Geneva. Fuentes was a member of the Mexican delegation to the International Labour Organization (ILO) in Geneva (1950–52), was in charge of cultural dissemination for the University of Mexico (1955–56), was cultural officer of the ministry (1957–59), and was ambassador to France (1975–77). He also cofounded and edited several periodicals, including Revista Mexicana de literatura (1954–58; “Mexican Review of Literature”).

      Rebelling against his family's middle-class values early in the 1950s, Fuentes became a communist, but he left the party in 1962 on intellectual grounds while remaining an avowed Marxist. His first collection of stories, Los días enmascarados (1954, 2nd ed. 1966; “The Masked Days”), recreates the past realistically and fantastically. His first novel, La región más transparente (1958; Where the Air Is Clear), which treated the theme of national identity and bitterly indicted Mexican society, won him national prestige. The work was marked by cinematographic techniques, flashbacks, interior monologues, and language from all levels of society, showing influences from many non-Spanish literatures. After this, Fuentes spent most of his time writing but continued to travel widely as he had in his youth.

      The novel Las buenas conciencias (1959; The Good Conscience) emphasized the moral compromises that mark the transition from a rural economy to a complex middle-class urban one. Aura (1962) is a novella that successfully fuses reality and fantasy. La muerte de Artemio Cruz (1962; The Death of Artemio Cruz), which presents the agony of the last hours of a wealthy survivor of the Mexican Revolution, was translated into several languages and established Fuentes as a major international novelist.

      After Artemio Cruz came a succession of novels. Cambio de piel (1967; A Change of Skin) defines existentially a collective Mexican consciousness by exploring and reinterpreting the country's myths. Terra nostra (1975; “Our Land,” Eng. trans. Terra nostra) explores the cultural substrata of New and Old Worlds as the author, using Jungian archetypal symbolism, seeks to understand his cultural heritage. Diana; o, la cazadora solitaria (1994; Diana the Goddess Who Hunts Alone) is a fictional version of Fuentes's affair with the American actress Jean Seberg. In 1995 he published La frontera de cristal: una novela en nueve cuentos (The Crystal Frontier: A Novel in Nine Stories), a tale of nine lives as they are affected by a powerful and unscrupulous man. Among Fuentes's other works of fiction are La cabeza de la hidra (1978; The Hydra Head), Una familia lejana (1980; Distant Relations), Gringo viejo (1985; The Old Gringo; filmed 1989), Cristóbal nonato (1987; Christopher Unborn), and Los años con Laura Díaz (1999; The Years with Laura Díaz) and the novella Instinto de Inez (2001; Inez).

      Fuentes published several collections of stories, including Constancia, y otras novelas para vírgenes (1989; Constancia and Other Stories for Virgins) and El naranjo; o, los círculos del tiempo (1993; “The Orange Tree; or, The Circles of Time,” Eng. trans. The Orange Tree). English translations of 11 of his stories, written from 1954, appear in Burnt Water (1980).

      Fuentes also wrote several plays, including the important Todos los gatos son pardos (1970; “All Cats Are Gray”), a drama about the Spanish conquest of Mexico with the pivotal character La Malinche, the quasi-legendary woman agent of Hernán Cortés who is said to have served as a mediator between the Spanish and Mexican civilizations. A revised version of Todos los gatos was released in 1991 as Ceremonias del alba (“Ceremonies of the Dawn”).

      Among Fuentes's works of nonfiction are La nueva novela hispanoamericana (1969; “The New Hispano-American Novel”), which is his chief work of literary criticism; Cervantes; o, la critica de la lectura (1976; “Cervantes; or, The Critique of Reading,” Eng. trans. Don Quixote; or, The Critique of Reading), an homage to the great Spanish writer; and his book-length essay on Hispanic cultures, El espejo enterrado (1992; Buried Mirror), which was published simultaneously in Spanish and English.

      Fuentes was undoubtedly one of the foremost Mexican writers of the 20th century. His broad range of literary accomplishments and his articulate humanism made him highly influential in the world's literary communities, particularly in that of Latin America. Several of his novels effect a cosmopolitan dialogue between Mexican culture and that of other countries and study the effect of foreign cultures, especially the Spanish and the North American, on Mexican identity. He pronounced his most ambitious work, Terra nostra, an attempt to synthesize the voices of James Joyce in Ulysses and Alexandre Dumas in The Count of Monte Cristo. Fuentes exhibits a postmodern sensibility in his use of plural voices to explore a subject. In 1987 he won the Cervantes Prize, the most prestigious Spanish-language literary award.

Additional Reading
Works of criticism on Carlos Fuentes include Maarten Van Delden, Carlos Fuentes, Mexico, and Modernity (1998); Chalene Helmuth, The Postmodern Fuentes (1997); Raymond Leslie Williams, The Writings of Carlos Fuentes (1996); Alfonso González, Carlos Fuentes: Life, Work, and Criticism (1987); Wendy B. Faris, Carlos Fuentes (1983); World Literature Today: Carlos Fuentes Issue, vol. 57, no. 4 (Autumn 1983); Robert Brody and Charles Rossman (eds.), Carlos Fuentes: A Critical View (1982); and Daniel de Guzmán, Carlos Fuentes (1972).

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Universalium. 2010.

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