France, Anatole

France, Anatole
orig. Jacques-Anatole-François Thibault

born April 16, 1844, Paris, France
died Oct. 12, 1924, Saint-Cyr-sur-Loire

French novelist and critic.

France's characteristically ironic and urbane skepticism appeared in his early novels, including Le Crime de Sylvestre Bonnard (1881) and At the Sign of the Reine Pédauque (1893). Later he introduced both bitter satire and humanitarian concerns into many works, such as the tetralogy L'Histoire Contemporaine (1897–1901), whose final volume, Monsieur Bergeret in Paris (1901), reflects his support for Alfred Dreyfus. The comedy Crainquebille (1903) proclaims the hostility toward the bourgeois order that led him to embrace socialism, and he was ultimately drawn to communism. He won the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1921.

* * *

▪ French writer
pseudonym of  Jacques-Anatole-François Thibault  
born April 16, 1844, Paris, France
died Oct. 12, 1924, Saint-Cyr-sur-Loire
 writer and ironic, skeptical, and urbane critic who was considered in his day the ideal French man of letters. He was elected to the French Academy in 1896 and was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1921.

      The son of a bookseller, he spent most of his life around books. At school he received the foundations of a solid humanist culture and decided to devote his life to literature. His first poems were influenced by the Parnassian revival of classical tradition, and, though scarcely original, they revealed a sensitive stylist who was already cynical about human institutions.

      This ideological skepticism appeared in his early stories: Le Crime de Sylvestre Bonnard (1881), a novel about a philologist in love with his books and bewildered by everyday life; La Rôtisserie de la Reine Pédauque (1893; At the Sign of the Reine Pédauque), which discreetly mocks belief in the occult; and Les Opinions de Jérome Coignard (1893), in which an ironic and perspicacious critic examines the great institutions of the state. His personal life underwent considerable turmoil. His marriage in 1877 to Marie-Valérie Guérin de Sauville ended in divorce in 1893. He had met Madame Arman de Caillavet in 1888, and their liaison inspired his novels Thaïs (1890), a tale set in Egypt of a courtesan who becomes a saint, and Le Lys rouge (1894; The Red Lily), a love story set in Florence.

      A marked change in France's work first appears in four volumes collected under the title L'Histoire contemporaine (1897–1901). The first three volumes—L'Orme du mail (1897; The Elm-Tree on the Mall), Le Mannequin d'osier (1897; The Wicker Work Woman), and L'Anneau d'améthyste (1899; The Amethyst Ring)—depict the intrigues of a provincial town. The last volume, Monsieur Bergeret à Paris (1901; Monsieur Bergeret in Paris), concerns the participation of the hero, who had formerly held himself aloof from political strife, in the Alfred Dreyfus affair. This work is the story of Anatole France himself, who was diverted from his role of an armchair philosopher and detached observer of life by his commitment to support Dreyfus. After 1900 he introduced his social preoccupations into most of his stories. Crainquebille (1903), a comedy in three acts adapted by France from an earlier short story, dramatizes the unjust treatment of a small tradesman and proclaims the hostility toward the bourgeois order that led France eventually to embrace socialism. Toward the end of his life, his sympathies were drawn to communism. However, Les Dieux ont soif (1912; The Gods are Athirst) and L'Île des Pingouins (1908; Penguin Island) show little belief in the ultimate arrival of a fraternal society. World War I reinforced his profound pessimism and led him to seek refuge from his times in childhood reminiscences. Le Petit Pierre (1918; Little Pierre) and La Vie en fleur (1922; The Bloom of Life) complete the cycle started in Le Livre de mon ami (1885; My Friend's Book).

      France has been faulted for the thinness of his plots and for his lack of a vital creative imagination. His works are, however, considered remarkable for their wide-ranging erudition, their wit and irony, their passion for social justice, and their classical clarity, qualities that mark France as an heir to the tradition of Denis Diderot and Voltaire.

Additional Reading
France's life and work are discussed in Jacob Axelrad, Anatole France: A Life Without Illusions, 1844–1924 (1944); Carter Jefferson (Alfred Carter Jefferson), Anatole France: The Politics of Skepticism (1965); David Tylden-Wright, Anatole France (1967); and Reino Virtanen, Anatole France (1968).

* * *

Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • France,Anatole — France (frăns, fräɴs), Anatole. Pen name of Jacques Anatole François Thibault. 1844 1924. French critic and writer of sophisticated, often satirical short stories and novels, including Penguin Island (1908). He won the 1921 Nobel Prize for… …   Universalium

  • France, Anatole — (1844 1924) (Anatole François Thibaut)    writer, Nobel laureate    Born Anatole François Thibaut in Paris, Anatole France, as he was known, was a novelist and Nobel laureate and is frequently regarded as the greatest French writer of the late… …   France. A reference guide from Renaissance to the Present

  • France, Anatole — ► Seudónimo del escritor francés François Anatole Thibault. (V. Anatole France.) * * * orig. Jacques Anatole François Thibault (16 abr. 1844, París, Francia–12 oct. 1924, Saint Cyr sur Loire). Novelista y crítico francés. El escepticismo irónico… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • France, Anatole — pseud. di Thibault, Anatole François …   Sinonimi e Contrari. Terza edizione

  • Anatole France — Activités Écrivain Naissance 16 avril 1844 Paris Décès 12 octobre 1924 …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Anatole France — Nombre completo Anatole François Thibault Nacimiento 16 de abril de 1844 …   Wikipedia Español

  • Anatole (géant processionnel) — Anatole (à droite) et ses 2 comparses de Villeneuve d Ascq, Grand Père Guernouillard (à gauche) et L Affreux Luquet (au centre). Anatole est un géant de processions et de cortèges inauguré en 1998, à Flers Bourg (Flers lez L …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Anatole Dauman — Anatole Dauman, né le 7 février 1925 à Varsovie (Pologne), et mort le 8 avril 1998 à Paris (France), est un producteur de cinéma français. Émigré polonais en France, Anatole Dauman fonde, en 1949, la société de production… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • FRANCE — IL ne manque pas de définitions de la France, leur trait commun étant de souligner que la France est, par définition, indéfinissable. Il ne saurait donc être question d’ajouter une définition à celles qui existent déjà. Parmi celles ci, deux… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • France — France, Anatole * * * (as used in expressions) Air France Compagnie Internationale Air France Berry, Jean de France, duque de Fort de France France Telecom S.A. France, Anatole France Presse, Agence Mendès France, Pierre Port de France …   Enciclopedia Universal

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”