Flaminius, Gaius

Flaminius, Gaius
died 217 BC

Roman political leader.

As tribune (232) he supported Roman expansion in northern Italy; his land bill (232) gave land to Roman plebeians and gained him great popularity, but the bill's passage was seen as the cause of the Gallic invasion of 225 (repelled in 223), and he was held responsible. He was elected consul in 223 and 217. As censor (220) he built the Circus Flaminius in Rome and the Via Flaminia to Ariminum (Rimini). He died fighting Hannibal in the Second Punic War.

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▪ Roman politician
died 217 BC

      Roman political leader who was one of the earliest to challenge the senatorial aristocracy by appealing to the people. The Romans called this stance acting as a popularis, or man of the people. The most important Roman historical sources, Polybius (2nd century BC) and Livy (1st century BC), depict him as violent and reckless, in accordance with the senatorial view, which goes back to the first Roman historian, Quintus Fabius Pictor (Fabius Pictor, Quintus) (3rd century BC). However, the facts are hard to establish.

      Flaminius was a novus homo—i.e., the first in his family to hold elective office—when he was elected tribune of the plebs (the order that included most citizens) in 232 BC. He earned the support of the people and the hatred of the Senate by carrying a bill that distributed plots of land to poor Romans in an area on the east coast of Italy south of Ariminum (present-day Rimini), which the Romans had conquered 50 years earlier from the Senones, a Gallic tribe. Elected praetor (the second-ranking magistrate) in 227, Flaminius became the first annual governor of the Roman province of Sicily. In 225 a Gallic army crossed the Po River and invaded Etruria, north of Rome. Polybius says the senators were outraged because Flaminius had settled Roman farmers on formerly Gallic land, but modern historians do not credit this explanation. Flaminius was elected one of the two consuls (chief magistrates) for 223 and moved to attack the Insubres on the far side of the Po River. To forestall this plan, the Senate declared that evil omens had marred the consular elections and sent a letter to Flaminius ordering him to resign. He refused to open the letter until he had decisively defeated the Insubres. When the Senate would not vote him a triumph, the people did. Plutarch (2nd century AD) reports that the consuls were eventually forced to resign.

      Elected censor for 220, he built the Circus Flaminius to accommodate spectacles for the populace, and he constructed the Via Flaminia from Rome to Ariminum to encourage trade with the farmers he had settled there, to enable Roman armies to travel there and protect against invasions, and perhaps to make it easier for citizens to return to Rome for elections. The senatorial tradition reports that he was the only senator to support the Lex Claudia of Quintus Claudius (218), which forbade senators to engage in commerce.

      In 218 Hannibal invaded Italy and defeated a Roman army. Flaminius was elected consul a second time for 217. The senatorial tradition accuses him of ignoring unfavourable omens, of neglecting to consult the gods by taking the auspices, and of assuming his office among his loyal clients at Ariminum instead of Rome. He moved his army to Arretium (present-day Arezzo) to keep Hannibal from entering Etruria, but the Carthaginian slipped by his forces. Flaminius rushed after Hannibal. Marching in a morning fog, the Roman army was ambushed near Lacus Trasimenus (present-day Lago di Trasimeno). Flaminius fell with 15,000 troops. The Senate blamed his recklessness and neglect of religion—yet no Roman consul ever defeated Hannibal on Italian soil. His appeal to the people against the senatorial aristocracy became only a century later a regular part of Roman politics, with the work of the tribunes Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus (Gracchus, Tiberius Sempronius) (133) and his brother, Gaius Sempronius Gracchus (Gracchus, Gaius Sempronius) (123–122).

E. Badian

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Universalium. 2010.

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