- Falun Gong
or Falun DafaControversial spiritual movement combining healthful exercises with meditation for the purpose of "moving to higher levels." Its teachings draw from Buddhism, Confucianism, Daoism, and the Western New Age movement. It was founded in China in 1992 by Li Hongzhi, a former grain-bureau clerk from Jilin province. He originally registered it as a form of the natural-healing discipline qigong, but he later withdrew it from China's Qigong Research Association to stress its spiritual (rather than health-related) emphasis. Its members nevertheless claim great health benefits from its practice. It claims a worldwide following of 100 million, with 70 million in China; Chinese authorities claim it has as few as 2 or 3 million members. The movement has been regarded as a threat by the Chinese government, which started arresting its followers in mid-1999. Many Falun Gong members were later tried and given long prison sentences. Li emigrated to the U.S. in 1998.
* * *▪ religionChinese“the Practice of the Wheel of Dharma”, also spelled Falungong , also called Falundafacontroversial Chinese spiritual movement founded by Li Hongzhi in 1992; its adherents exercise ritually to obtain mental and spiritual renewal. The teachings of Falun Gong draw from the Asian religious traditions of Buddhism, Taoism (Daoism), Confucianism, and Chinese folklore as well as those of Western New Age movements (New Age movement). The movement's sudden emergence in the 1990s was a great concern to the Chinese government, which viewed Falun Gong as a cult.The origins of the movement are found both in long-standing Chinese practices and in recent events. Qi Gong (Chinese: “Energy Working”), the use of meditation techniques and physical exercise to achieve both good health and peace of mind, has a long history in Chinese culture and religion; however, practitioners in modern China present these techniques as purely secular in an effort to escape official restrictions against independent religious activity. Nevertheless, in the late 20th century new masters appeared who taught forms of Qi Gong more clearly rooted in religion. The most influential of these, Li Hongzhi (born in 1951, according to followers, or in 1952, according to critics, who contend that Li “adjusted” his birthdate to lend it Buddhist spiritual significance), worked in law enforcement and corporate security before becoming the full-time spiritual leader of Falun Gong in 1992.While in traditional Chinese Buddhism falun means the “wheel of law” or “wheel of dharma,” Li uses the word to indicate the centre of spiritual energy, which he locates in the lower abdomen and believes can be awakened through a set of exercises called Xiu Lian (“Cultivating and Practicing”). Unlike other Qi Gong groups, Falun Gong insists that its founder is the only authoritative source for determining the correct exercises and that a spiritual discipline, the “cultivation of the Xinxing” (“Mind-Nature”), is essential to the success of the exercises. On a more esoteric level, Li also teaches that demonic space aliens seek to destroy humanity and, since their arrival in 1900, have manipulated scientists and world leaders. Critics of the movement not only ridicule such claims but regard its reliance on Xiu Lian as an alternative to official medicine as hazardous to the members' health. Indeed, the Chinese government claims that 1,400 Falun Gong devotees have died as a result of this alleged rejection of modern medicine.After gathering a large following in China (100 million, according to Falun Gong, or between 2 and 3 million, according to the Chinese government), Li took his movement abroad in the mid-1990s, settling permanently in New York City in 1998. The next year, a massive campaign was launched by the medical establishment (including both practitioners and academics) and the Chinese government to denounce Falun Gong as a xiejiao (“teaching of falsehood,” or “cult”). Unlike other Chinese organizations, Falun Gong responded strongly, staging an unauthorized demonstration of more than 10,000 followers in Beijing on April 25, 1999, which prompted an even greater government response. In October the enforcement of a new anticult law led to the arrest of 100 Falun Gong leaders (joining 1,000 members who had been arrested earlier). Public trials began in November and continued into the 21st century, with many defendants receiving prison sentences of up to 12 years. While the Chinese government gained the cooperation of some Western “anticult” groups in its domestic and international campaign to expose Falun Gong as a “cult,” it was also criticized by human rights organizations who denounced inter alia the suspicious deaths, allegedly by accident, of some Falun Gong members detained in Chinese jails.The government's actions, rooted in concerns about the recent revival of independent religious activities in China and fears of the revolutionary nature of religious movements in Chinese history (e.g, the Taiping Rebellion), may drive Falun Gong underground, but its beliefs and practices will probably survive in a variety of forms.Massimo IntrovigneAdditional ReadingPrimary sources in English include Li Hongzhi (Hongzhi Li), China Falun Gong, rev. ed. (1998), and Falun Buddha Law (1998). A critical scholarly assessment, before the crackdown, is Benoît Vermander, “The Law and the Wheel: The Sudden Emergence of the Falungong,” China Perspectives, 24:14–21 (July–August 1999). Criticism of the movement by the Chinese government is presented in Ji Shi (Shi Ji), Li Hongzhi & His “Falun Gong”: Deceiving the Public and Ruining Lives (1999).
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