Eleazar ben Judah of Worms

Eleazar ben Judah of Worms
orig. Eleazar ben Judah ben Kalonymos

born 1160, Mainz, Franconia
died 1238, Worms

German Jewish mystic and Talmudic scholar.

His wife and daughters were killed by Crusaders in 1196, but he nevertheless continued to teach a doctrine of love of humanity. After studying with Judah ben Samuel, to whom he was related, he became a rabbi at Worms (1201). Eleazar attempted to unify the mysticism of the Kabbala with the Talmud. His greatest work was his ethical code, Rokeah (1505). He believed that God himself was unknowable but that the kavod, a ruling angel that was an emanation from God, was knowable. His writings are a major source of information on medieval Hasidism.

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▪ German rabbi
original name  Eleazar Ben Judah Ben Kalonymos,  also called  Eleazar Rokeaḥ 
born c. 1160, , Mainz, Franconia [Germany]
died 1238, Worms

      Jewish rabbi, mystic, Talmudist, and codifier. Along with the Sefer Ḥasidim (1538; “Book of the Pious”), of which he was a coauthor, his voluminous works are the major extant documents of medieval German Ḥasidism (an ultrapious sect that stressed prayer and mysticism).

      Eleazar was a member of the eminent Kalonymos family, which gave medieval Germany many of its spiritual leaders and mystics; another member of that family, the semilegendary pietist Judah ben Samuel the Ḥasid of Regensburg, was his teacher and spiritual master. Eleazar's wife conducted a business so that he could devote himself to his studies. In 1196 two Christian crusaders broke into his house and, before his eyes, murdered his wife and two daughters. In spite of this horrendous experience, he continued to teach a doctrine of love of humanity. He became a rabbi at Worms in 1201 and in 1223 took part in a synod at Mainz, which considered such questions as business relations with Christians and the inequitable exemptions of particularly favoured Jews from the tax imposed by the government.

      Eleazar was a man of great erudition who did not compartmentalize his knowledge of Kabbalism (the influential body of Jewish mystical writings) and the Talmud (the rabbinical compendium of law, lore, and commentary); rather, he tried to unify these opposing aspects of Judaism in his writings, often with strange results.

      His greatest work is his ethical code Rokeaḥ (1505; “Dealer in Spice”), for which he is sometimes known as Eleazar Rokeaḥ. The work is prefaced with a number of chapters dealing with the essential principles of Judaism, in which Eleazar attempts to explain mystical concepts, including the unity of God, in terms of Halakha (Law). The work itself, which is not complete, contains some 497 sections addressed to every aspect of Jewish life, from sabbath law, holiday rituals, and marriage ceremony to penance for sins, the latter a preoccupation of the German Ḥasidim, in common with medieval Christianity.

      Eleazar was an angelologist (angel and demon), not only in his mystic theories of theurgy (the art of persuading or compelling supernatural beings to one's bidding) but also in his writings on the kavod (“divine glory”), a concept also shared by his master, Judah ben Samuel the Ḥasid, who wrote a mystical work, existing only in citations, on the subject. Eleazar believed that the kavod, a ruling angel, was an emanation from God and the knowable aspect of him, while God himself was infinitely transcendent and unknowable. Eleazar also wrote tosafot (commentaries) on a number of Talmudic tractates, as well as mystical commentaries on the five scrolls (Song of Solomon, Ruth, Lamentations, Ecclesiastes, and Esther) and on the Pentateuch (five books of Moses).

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Universalium. 2010.

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