Dupleix, Joseph-François

Dupleix, Joseph-François
born 1697, Landrecies, France
died Nov. 10, 1763, Paris

French colonial administrator who attempted to establish a French empire in India.

His father, a director of the French East India Company, secured him an appointment in 1720 to the superior council of Pondicherry, capital of French India, and in 1742 he was named governor-general of French India. He fought the British in India during the War of the Austrian Succession (1744) and later attempted to undermine the British position in southern India. His schemes exhausted French finances, and he was recalled to France, discredited, in 1754.

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▪ French colonial official
born 1697, Landrecies, France
died Nov. 10, 1763, Paris
 colonial administrator and governor-general of the French territories in India, who nearly realized his dream of establishing a French empire in India.

      His father, François, a director of the French East India Company, sent Dupleix on a voyage to India and America in 1715. His father's influence led to his appointment (1720) to the superior council of Pondicherry (Puducherry) (now Puducherry), the capital of French India. He was made superintendent of the French factory (trading station) in Chandernagore, Bengal, in 1731 and 11 years later was appointed governor-general of all French establishments in India. When fighting between France and Britain broke out in the War of the Austrian Succession (Austrian Succession, War of the) in 1744, the French proposed neutrality in India, but this was rejected by the British. In 1746, with the help of a French fleet, Dupleix seized Madras (now Chennai) but failed to capture the neighbouring British fort of St. David. He twice defeated armies sent to relieve Britain's ally, the nawab Anwār al-Dīn of the Carnatic (modern Karnataka (Karnātaka) state).

      The Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle (Aix-la-Chapelle, Treaty of) ended the war in Europe in 1748 and restored Madras to the British, but Dupleix embarked on further schemes for French aggrandizement in India. Sensing the military weakness of the various contending princes in south India, he forged local alliances with them that were aimed at ruining the British East India Company. He supported Chanda Sahib's claim to the nawabship of the Carnatic, and, when the British supported a rival candidate, a largely private war ensued (1751) between the two companies. Mostly as the result of the exploits of Dupleix's chief rival, the brilliant young British soldier Robert Clive (Clive, Robert, 1st Baron Clive of Plassey), all the French forces except those in the Deccan were defeated. Dupleix's grand schemes continued to topple for two more years, and French finances were exhausted in the struggle.

      In 1754 Dupleix was recalled to Paris, where he unsuccessfully sued the French East India Company for money he claimed he had spent on its account. Dupleix remained discredited in France and died in despair, obscurity, and relative poverty. He had displayed great talents as an organizer, diplomat, and imaginative political visionary, but he had lacked military acumen and the ability to work with others.

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Universalium. 2010.

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  • Dupleix, Joseph-François — (1697 1763)    colonial administrator    Born in Landrecies, Joseph François Dupleix served as the director of the French Indies Company (1720), then as the director general of all French bank branches in India. He had a military, as well as a… …   France. A reference guide from Renaissance to the Present

  • Dupleix, Joseph-François — (1697, Landrecies, Francia–10 nov. 1763, París). Administrador colonial francés que intentó establecer un imperio francés en India. Su padre, director de la Compañía Francesa de las Indias Orientales, le consiguió en 1720 un nombramiento en el… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Joseph-François Dupleix — (* 1. Januar 1697 in Landrecies; † 10. November 1763) war Generalgouverneur der Französischen Niederlassung in Indien und der große Rivale von Robert Clive. Dupleix wurde in Landrecies, Frankreich geboren. Sein Vater, François Dupleix, war ein… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

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  • Joseph François Dupleix — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Dupleix. Joseph François Dupleix Naissance …   Wikipédia en Français

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  • Joseph François Dupleix — (January 1, 1697 – November 10, 1763) was governor general of the French establishment in India, and was the great rival of Robert Clive.BiographyDupleix was born in Landrecies, France. His father, François Dupleix, a wealthy farmer, wished to… …   Wikipedia

  • Joseph François — may refer to:* Joseph François Dupleix (1697 1763), governor general of the French establishment in India * Joseph François Michaud (1767 1839), French historian and publicist * Joseph Louis François Bertrand (1822 1900), French mathematician *… …   Wikipedia

  • Joseph François Dupleix — Joseph François Dupleix, administrador colonial y líder francés en la India durante los conflictos anglo franceses del siglo XVIII y rival de Robert Clive …   Enciclopedia Universal

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