- Dravidian languages
Family of 23 languages indigenous to and spoken principally in South Asia by more than 210 million people.The four major Dravidian languages of southern Indiahave independent scripts and long documented histories. They account for the overwhelming majority of all Dravidian-speakers, and they form the basis of the linguistic states of Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, and Kerala. All have borrowed liberally from Sanskrit. The only Dravidian language spoken entirely outside of India is Brahui, with fewer than two million speakers mainly in Pakistan and Afghanistan. Of the Dravidian languages, Tamil has the greatest geographical extension and the richest and most ancient literature, which is paralleled in India only by that of Sanskrit. The Dravidian family, with no demonstrated relationship to other language families, is assumed to have covered a much more extensive area of South Asia before the spread of Indo-Aryan and was the source of loanwords into early Indo-Aryan dialects.
* * *Introductionfamily of some 70 languages spoken primarily in South Asia. The Dravidian languages are spoken by more than 215 million people in India, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka.The Dravidian languages are divided into South, South-Central, Central, and North groups; these groups are further organized into 24 subgroups. The four major literary languages—Telugu (Telugu language), Tamil (Tamil language), Malayalam (Malayalam language), and Kannada (Kannada language)—are recognized by the constitution of India. They are also the official languages of the states of Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu (Tamil Nādu), Kerala, and Karnataka (Karnātaka) (formerly Mysore), respectively.The history of the Dravidian languagesThere is considerable literature on the theory that India is a linguistic area where different language families have developed convergent structures through extensive regional and societal bilingualism. It is now well established that the Indo-Aryan (Indo-Aryan languages) and Dravidian language families developed convergent structures in sound system ( phonology) and grammar owing to contact going back to the 2nd millennium BCE. The earliest varieties of Indo-Aryan are forms of Sanskrit (Sanskrit language). More than a dozen Dravidian loanwords can be detected in the Sanskrit text of the Rigveda (1500 BCE), including ulūkhala- ‘mortar,' kuṇḍa ‘pit,' khála- ‘threshing floor,' kāṇá- ‘one-eyed,' and mayūra ‘peacock.' The introduction of retroflex consonants (those produced by the tongue tip raised against the middle of the hard palate) has also been credited to contact between speakers of Sanskrit and those of the Dravidian languages.The presence of Dravidian loanwords in the Rigveda implies that Dravidian and Aryan speakers were, by the time of its composition, fused into one speech community in the great Indo-Gangetic Plain, while independent communities of Dravidian speakers had moved to the periphery of the Indo-Aryan area (Brahui in the northwest, Kurukh-Malto in the east, and Gondi-Kui in the east and central India). Notably, the most ancient forms of the Dravidian languages are found in southern India, which was not exposed to Sanskrit until the 5th century BCE. This suggests that the south was populated by the speakers of the Dravidian languages even before the entry of Aryans into India.The word drāviḍa/drāmiḍa and its adjectival forms occur in Classical Sanskrit literature from the 3rd century BCE as the name of a country and its people. Drāviḍa as the name of a language occurs in Kumarila-Bhatta (Kumārila)'s Tantravartika (“Exposition on the Sacred Sciences”) of approximately the 7th century CE. In these and almost all similar cases, there is reason to believe that the name referred to the Tamil country, Tamil people, and Tamil language. Robert Caldwell, the Scottish missionary and bishop who wrote the first comparative grammar of the Dravidian languages (1856), argued that the term sometimes referred ambiguously to South Indian people and their languages; he adopted it as a generic name for the whole family since Tamil (tamiẓ) was already the established name of a specific language.Caldwell and other scholars have postulated that several words from Greek (Greek language), Latin (Latin language), and Hebrew (Hebrew language) are Dravidian in origin. The authenticity of many of these claims has been disputed, although two items seem plausible. The first is the Greek oruza/oryza/orynda ‘rice,' which must be compared with Proto-Dravidian *war-inci (the asterisk denotes a reconstruction based on attested descendant forms, in this case the Tamil-Malayalam-Telugu wari, Parji verci(l), Gadaba varci(l), and Gondi wanji ‘rice, paddy') and not with Tamil arisi (South Dravidian *ariki) as proposed by Caldwell.In the second case, the Greek ziggiberis/zingiberis ‘ginger' derives from the South Dravidian nominal compound *cinki-wēr (Proto-Dravidian *wēr ‘root'), Pali singi and singivera, Sanskrit s'ṛṅgavera-, and Tamil-Malayalam iñci (derived from *cinki by loss of *c and by changing -ki to -ci after a front vowel). A number of place-names of South India cited by Pliny the Elder (1st century CE) and Ptolemy (2nd century CE) end in -our or -oura, which correspond to the place-name suffix -ūr ‘town' from Proto-Dravidian *ūr. These and other etymologies are listed in the table of etymologies (Dravidian languages) discussed in the sections below.Dravidian studiesIn 1816, Englishman Francis Whyte Ellis of the Indian Civil Service (at the time a division of the East India Company) introduced the notion of a Dravidian family. His Dissertation of the Telugu Language was initially published as “Note to the Introduction” of British linguist A.D. Campbell's A Grammar of the Teloogoo Language. Ellis's monograph provided lexical and grammatical evidence to support the hypothesis that Tamil, Telugu, Kannada, Malayalam, Tulu, Kodagu, and Malto were members of “the family of languages which may be appropriately called the dialects of Southern India.”The next major publication on the Dravidian languages was Robert Caldwell's A Comparative Grammar of the Dravidian or South Indian Family of Languages (1856). A missionary who left his native Scotland for a lifetime of work in India, he demonstrated that the Dravidian languages were not genetically related to Sanskrit, thus disproving a view that had been held by Indian scholars for more than two millennia. Caldwell identified 12 Dravidian languages; to the 7 already noted by Ellis, he added Toda and Kota of South Dravidian, Gondi and Kui-Kuvi of South-Central Dravidian, and Kurukh of North Dravidian. He also discussed Brahui.The 20th century was marked by considerable research and publication on the Dravidian language family and its members, particularly in three realms of study. The first was the collection of cognates (related words) and the discovery of sound correspondences (related sounds) among the different languages; these led to the reconstruction of the hypothetical parent language called Proto-Dravidian. The second area of investigation focused on the study of the various inscriptions, literary texts, and regional dialects of the four literary languages, which allowed scholars to identify the historical evolution of those languages. A third area of interest involved the discovery and linguistic description of new languages within the family.Several new languages were added to the Dravidian family in the 20th century, including Kota, Kolami, Parji, Pengo, Ollari, Konda/Kubi, Kondekor Gadaba, Irula, and Toda. Progress was also made in describing nonliterary languages, notably Brahui, Kurukh, Malto, Kui, Kuvi, Gondi (various dialects), Kodagu, and Tulu.The most significant and monumental work of the 20th century was A Dravidian Etymological Dictionary ([DED] 1961; revised 1984) by British linguist Thomas Burrow and Canadian linguist Murray B. Emeneau. Much that has been accomplished in comparative phonology and reconstruction is indebted to this work. The early 21st century saw a continuation of studies in comparative morphology, though much work on the comparative syntax of the family remains to be done.Literary languagesTamil (Tamil language)Of the four literary languages in the Dravidian family, Tamil is the oldest, with examples dating to the early Common Era. In the early 21st century, Tamil was spoken by more than 66 million people, mostly residing in India, northwestern Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Singapore, Mauritius, Fiji, and Myanmar (Burma).The first known work in the Tamil language, Tolkappiyam (1st–4th century CE; “Ancient Literature”), is a treatise on grammar and poetics. Its existence presupposes a large body of literature that was probably available in the form of anthologies. Although the influence of early Sanskrit (Sanskrit language) grammars (dating from the 5th century BCE) is obvious in certain grammatical concepts like Tamil kalam ‘tense, time' (Sanskrit kāla ‘time, tense'), Tamil peyar ‘name' for ‘noun' (Sanskrit nāman ‘name, noun'), and Tamil wēṟṟumai ‘separation, division' for ‘case' (Sanskrit vibhakti- ‘case marker,' literally ‘division'), there is much that is original in Tolkappiyam.Inscriptions in Tamil Brahmi script (an adaptation of Ashokan Brahmi (Brāhmī)) are found from the 2nd century BCE. As in the case of Greek (Greek language) and Arabic (Arabic language), Tamil has diglossia, which means that two forms of the language coexist in the speech community. The standard written and spoken variety of Tamil, called centamiẓ ‘beautiful Tamil,' is based on the classical language of an earlier era and not on any of the contemporary regional dialects. The many spoken varieties of Tamil are called koṭuntamiẓ ‘crooked Tamil' or ‘vulgar Tamil' and are not used in formal speech and writing. The newspaper language and the language of political speeches is centamiẓ.Malayalam (Malayalam language)Malayalam was the west coast dialect of Tamil until about the 9th century CE. Geographically separated from the main speech community by the steep Western Ghats, the dialect gradually developed into a distinct language. The first literary work in Malayalam is Ramacaritam (12th–13th century; “Deeds of Rama”). The first grammar, Lilatilakam (14th century; “Book of the Sacred Mark”), was written in Sanskrit. Unlike Tamil, and to a greater degree than Kannada and Telugu, Malayalam has liberally borrowed from Sanskrit not only words but even various forms of inflection. Malayalam does not have diglossia of the Tamil kind.Kannada (Kannada language)Kannada is the official language of the Karnataka state. Inscriptions in Kannada date from the 5th century CE, while the first literary work, Kavirajamarga (“The Royal Road of Poets”), is a treatise on poetics from the 9th century. Kesiraja's Shabda mani darpana (“Jewel Mirror of Grammar”) is the first comprehensive grammar written in Kannada and dates to the 13th century. Modern standard Kannada is based on the educated speech of southern Karnataka (associated with the cities of Mysore and Bangalore [Bengaluru]) and differs considerably from the northern (Dharwar) and coastal varieties. There are also caste dialects reported within each of the regions.Telugu (Telugu language)Among the Dravidian languages, Telugu is spoken by the largest population. After Hindi (Hindi language) and Bengali (Bengali language) it is the third most frequently spoken of all the Indian languages. Telugu place-names occur in Prakrit (Prākrit languages) inscriptions from the 2nd century CE. The first Telugu inscription is dated to 575 CE. The first literary work is by Nannaya Bhatta; dating from the 11th century, it is a poetic translation of a part of the Mahabharata (“Great Epic of the Bharata Dynasty”). The first Telugu grammar, Andhra shabda chintamani (“Treatise on the Language of the People”), was written in Sanskrit and is said to have been composed by the same author.There are four regional dialects (dialect) in Telugu, and Modern Standard Telugu is based on the speech and writings of the elite of the central coastal dialect. Although it is genetically closer to its northern neighbours, Telugu as a literary language has a great measure of interaction with Kannada; their scripts even have a common stage of evolution, the Telugu-Kannada script (7th–13th century). There were several Shaivite (Shaivism) poets who wrote in both Telugu and Kannada. The Vijayanagar king Krishnadevaraya was a patron of both Kannada and Telugu poetry. Consequently, there are extensive lexical borrowings between Telugu and Kannada.Nonliterary languagesSouth Dravidian languagesAmong the nonliterary South Dravidian languages, Tulu (Tulu language) is spoken by the largest population, some 1.7 million people. Most reside in the Dakshina Kannada district of Karnataka and the Cannanore (Kannur) district of Kerala on the west coast. The Brahman dialect of Tulu is heavily influenced by Kannada, while the widely used “common” Tulu is used by the non-Brahman castes. Tulu speakers use Kannada as the official language. There is a growing modern literature in Tulu, but there are no known early texts. Tulu seems to share several features of phonology, grammar, and lexicon with the members of Central Dravidian subgroup, such as Parji and Kolami.Another South Dravidian language, Kodagu, is spoken in the Coorg district of Karnataka, which borders on Kerala. Kodagu speakers use Kannada as their official language and as the language of education. The remaining South Dravidian languages—Toda, Kota, Irula, and Kurumba—are spoken by Scheduled Tribes (officially recognized indigenous peoples) in the Nilgiri Hills of southwestern Tamil Nadu, near Karnataka. Badaga, a dialect of Kannada, is also spoken in the Nilgiri Hills.Though spoken by relatively small numbers of people, Toda, Kota, Irula, and Kurumba are of great interest to linguists (linguistics) and anthropologists (anthropological linguistics). Each has preserved the three-way distinction of the stop consonants—pronouncing the consonant t, for example, using the teeth (a pronunciation referred to as “dental” and written as /t/) or the alveolar ridge (alveolar, /ṯ/) or with the tongue curled back against the roof of the mouth (retroflex, /ṭ/)—a feature that was present in Proto-Dravidian (the hypothetical, unattested parent of all Dravidian languages). The Toda language has the largest number of vowels (vowel) (14) and consonants (consonant) (37) of any Dravidian language; notably, these developed through numerous sound changes and not through borrowing.South-Central Dravidian languagesWithin the South-Central subgroup, the nonliterary languages are all spoken by Scheduled Tribes. Gondi (Gondi language), which is split into many dialects in the four neighbouring states of Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra (Mahārāshtra), Orissa, and Andhra Pradesh, is spoken by more than 2.5 million people.The main dialect division is between north and northeast on the one hand and south and southwest on the other. Some of the dialects are probably mutually unintelligible, particularly Maria Gondi and Koya in the south and southeast. The dialect group comprising Kui, Kuvi, and Kubi must have separated from the other dialects some 500 or 600 years ago; Kubi (also known as Konda) is linguistically closer to Telugu (a language mainly spoken in the hills of the northeastern districts of Andhra Pradesh) than Kui or Kuvi are to Telugu.Central Dravidian languagesThe Central Dravidian languages are spoken by some 200,000 individuals. Kolami has the largest number of speakers, approximately 122,000 people, and has borrowed heavily from Telugu.Parji, spoken in the Bastar district of Madhya Pradesh, has borrowed extensively from Halbi, a dialect of Hindi. Parji is geographically contiguous to Ollari and Gadaba, which are spoken in the Koraput district of Orissa and the Srikakulam district of Andhra Pradesh, respectively. Ollari and Gadaba are geographically distant from Kolami and Naiki, which are spoken in Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra.North Dravidian languagesOf the three North Dravidian languages, Brahui (Brahui language) is the most geographically distant, being spoken in Balochistan (Balochistān), the westernmost province of Pakistan. Because Brahui does not retain any archaic features of Proto-Dravidian, it is likely that its speakers migrated westward from the mainland, where they intermingled with the speakers of Kurukh (Kurukh language) and Malto. Several shared sound changes in these three languages suggest a common undivided stage deeper in history. Brahui has been surrounded by Indo-Aryan (Indo-Aryan languages) and Iranian languages for many centuries, and only 5 percent of Brahui words are said to be Dravidian.Kurukh, also known as Oraon, is spoken by 1.7 million people in four neighbouring states in eastern India, where it is in contact with both Indo-Aryan and Munda languages. A dialect of Kurukh, called Dhangar, is spoken in Nepal. Malto is spoken to its north in Bihar and West Bengal. At present, Kurukh and Malto are not geographically contiguous.Phonological (phonology) features of Dravidian languagesThe examples in the table of cognates (Dravidian languages) illustrate the fact that the Dravidian languages belong to a single family—including the distant relative Brahui. Examples that are prefixed with asterisks have been reconstructed following the time-tested procedures of comparative linguistics. Proto-Dravidian reconstructions can be explained in terms of the systematic changes that have occurred in the different Dravidian subgroups and languages.Proto-Dravidian PhonologyThe Proto-Dravidian sound system has five short vowels (*/i/, */e/, */a/, */o/, */u/) and their five long counterparts (*/ī/, */ē/, */ā/, */ō/, */ū/). The language has 16 consonants. Vowels that are variable are denoted as V and variable consonants as C. In English, for instance, the combination bVnd, represents band, bend, bind, and bond, while baC represents bad, bag, ban, bat, and so forth. In Dravidian, a hypothetical 17th consonant—a variable laryngeal that is denoted as *H—is needed to explain quantitative changes in vowels and consonants in some cases, as illustrated in lines 16, 22, and 25 in the etymology table (Dravidian languages).Proto-Dravidian consonants Proto-Dravidian consonantsLinguists describe sounds by referring to their means of production, which typically combine the flow of air (e.g., constant or interrupted) with the positioning of the tongue and lips. The Proto-Dravidian sound system has six obstruents, or stops (/p/, /t/, /d/, /ṭ/, /c/, /k/), an uncommon number. Obstruent sounds are produced by checking and releasing the airstream with the tip or blade of the tongue at different parts of the oral tract. They can be “voiced” (simultaneously accompanied by vibration of the vocal cords) as in /b/, /d/, and /g/, or “voiceless” (with no vibration of the vocal cords), as in /p/, /t/, and /k/. Sounds other than obstruents are always voiced.Nasal sounds result when part of the air is released through the nose (/m/, /n/). The nasal phoneme /n/ has two articulations: it is pronounced as a dental nasal (/n/, produced by the tongue pressed against the back of the upper teeth with simultaneous release of air through the nose) at the beginning of a word and before the dental stop /t/ and as an alveolar nasal /ṉ/ elsewhere.In the production of laterals (/l/ sounds), the air is released from either side of the tongue. The sound represented as /r/ is produced by a single tap of the tongue tip against the alveolar ridge, as signified by the spelling dd in the English word ladder. The sound /ẓ/ is peculiar to the Dravidian languages. It is used in some modern Tamil dialects, where it sounds somewhat like the American Midwestern r in girl.The alveolar and retroflex sounds are produced with the tip or apex of the tongue; they are also called apical sounds. Sounds produced at the point of lips are referred to as labial; thus, /p/ is a labial stop, while /m/ is a labial nasal. Those pronounced behind the upper teeth are known as dental (/t/, /n/); at the ridge behind the teeth, alveolar (/l/, /r/); at the hard palate with curled-up tongue, retroflex (/ḷ/, /ṛ/, /ṭ/); against the hard palate with raised tongue blade, palatal (/c/, /y/); and at the soft palate with tongue back, velar (/k/). Notably, fricatives (such as /f/, /s/, and /sh/) are not found in Proto-Dravidian.Proto-Dravidian word formation (derivation)A root comprises the basic set of sounds that denote a general concept; prefixes, suffixes, and infixes may be attached to roots to provide them with specific meaning. For instance, the English root r-n(n) ‘the basic idea of running' (optional components are enclosed in parentheses) may become the specific words run, ran, and running through the affixation of -u-, -a-, and -u-ing, respectively.The roots of Proto-Dravidian are monosyllabic. A vowel is essential and can stand alone or be preceded or followed by a consonant, as with *ā ‘to become,' *kā ‘to guard,' *kaṇ ‘eye,' and *koy ‘to cut.' The vowel may be long or short. There are thus eight types of roots in Proto-Dravidian that can be described in terms of V (vowel) and C (consonant) combinations: V1, C1V1, V1C2, C1V1C2, V:1, C1V:1, V:1C2, C1V:1C2 (subscript numbers indicate the position in a root; V represents a short vowel, while V: is a long vowel).As there are no prefixes or infixes in Proto-Dravidian, its words always begin with a root. Alveolars and retroflexes do not begin a word in Proto-Dravidian. Almost all consonants can occur in the ending (also called root final) position—that is, as C2—except perhaps *ñ. Except for *r and *ẓ, which can occur only singly, all consonants can occur in single or doubled form.Grammatical relations at the word level are expressed by suffixation. Roots can be extended by the addition of one or two suffixes, though the meanings of such suffixes is not always clear. The first possible extension is a vowel (V2), always a, i, or u; it is added to roots that end in consonants. The second suffix type can be added to roots that end in vowels or to roots with a base that is already extended by the addition of a V2; it can take one of three possible forms: -C(V), -CC(V), or -CCC(V). Examples of these forms of suffixation include the series *kā-y ‘to burn,' *kā-nk-u (intransitive verb) ‘to boil,' and *kā-nkk-u (transitive verb) ‘to boil' and the series *tir-i ‘to turn,' *tir-u-ku ‘to roam,' *tir-a-y ‘to roll,' *tir-u-nt-u ‘to be changed,' and *tir-u-ntt-u ‘to change.'The Proto-Dravidian method for the writing of obstruents deserves particular attention. When the letters transliterated as p, t, ṯ, ṭ, c, and k occur singly between vowels, they take on lenis (lighter) articulation—they would be pronounced as /w/, /ḏ/ or /ṟ/, /ḍ/, /s/, and /g/, respectively. When following a nasal sound, however, they become voiced: /ng/, /nḏ/ or /nṟ/, /ṇḍ/, /ñj/, /ng/. At the beginning of a word (p-, t-, ṯ-, ṭ-, c-, k-) and when doubled (pp, tt, ṯṯ, ṭṭ, cc, kk), they remain voiceless, as in *cupp-u ‘salt' and *eṇ-ṭṭ-u ‘eight.' A stop that occurs as a C2 is followed by the vowel *-u, a feature both automatic and predictable.Proto-Dravidian words do not begin with consonant clusters (e.g., kr-, tr-, pr-). However, these developed later in South-Central Dravidian through certain sound changes. A differentiation between voiceless and voiced stops (e.g., /p/-/b/, /t/-/d/, /k/-/g/) became distinctive in most of the languages except Tamil and Malayalam through a series of internal changes and also through borrowing from the Indo-Aryan languages (especially Sanskrit and its genetically related languages). Most of the Dravidian languages also developed the voicing of stops at the beginning of words.Proto-Dravidian sound changesSeveral sound changes are found in all Dravidian languages in all subgroups. To be so widely distributed, these changes must have been prevalent in the parent language itself.One such change is a secondary development of certain alveolar and retroflex stops, namely */ṯ/ and */ṭ/, and the nasals */ṉ/ and */ṇ/. These occur in sandhi (combinations of sounds in morphemes (morpheme) [the smallest meaningful units of sound]) from older sequences, as when /l/ (alveolar) combined with /t/ (dental) to produce /ṯ/ (alveolar); likewise, /ḷ/ (retroflex) + /t/ (dental) → /ṭ/ (retroflex), /l/ + /n/ (dental) → /ṉ/ (alveolar); and /ḷ/ + /n/ → /ṇ/ (retroflex). Comparison of cognates from different Dravidian languages sometimes necessitates the reconstruction of multiple roots in the parent language, as with the Proto-Dravidian *kal, *kat ‘to learn'; *nil, *nit, *nint ‘to stand'; *el, *ent ‘sunshine'; *uḷ, *uṇṭ ‘to be'; and so on. These can be explained only in terms of certain sandhi processes within Proto-Dravidian.Another change attributed to Proto-Dravidian derives from a rule by which a heavy syllable of the type (C)VC- or (C)VCC- becomes a light syllable (C)VC- when followed by a formative suffix that begins with a vowel. In other words, the syllable is altered when affixed with a V2 suffix of the value -a, -i, or -u. For example, Proto-Dravidian *īr ‘two' (noun) becomes *ir-u- ‘dual, double' (adjective). A more complex example, *cupp- ‘salt' and *cuw-ar ‘salty,' illustrates the syllable change as well as an additional rule in which -p(p)- between vowels becomes -w-. This effect is illustrated in lines 5 and 8b in the etymology table (Dravidian languages).Historical development of Dravidian phonologyAlthough a number of sound changes occurred after Proto-Dravidian diverged into its subsidiary components, many were shared among the different branches and subgroups. The three most important changes are illustrated here, although a myriad of lesser changes also took place.The first major change is an instance of vowel harmony or umlaut. It comprises a shift in the Proto-Dravidian high vowels *i and *u: when either was present in a root syllable and followed by the low vowel -a in the next syllable, *i and *u became the mid-vowels *e and *o: (C1)i/uC2-a- became (C1)e/oC2-a-. For example, Proto-Dravidian *wil-ay ‘price' (* wil- ‘to sell') and *tur-a ‘to push' became *wel-ay and *tor-a in Proto-South and Proto-South-Central Dravidian. The words were retained in this form in some South Dravidian and South-Central Dravidian languages, but in Tamil and Malayalam the vowel form was initially shifted back to *i and *u—and then shifted again, back to mid-vowels. The vacillation in form has caused the vowel pairs i/e and u/o to lose their audible distinction (contrast) in Tamil and Malayalam. (A similar loss of contrast has occurred in the variety of English spoken in the Midwestern United States, where, for instance, hill and he'll have become homophones.)The second major change involves the loss or nullification of certain leading consonants: Proto-Dravidian words that began with *c shifted their initial consonant first to *s, then to *h, and finally lost the initial consonant altogether (the resulting “null consonant” can be denoted by the symbol Ø). This change is attested by many of the South-Central Dravidian languages, including Gondi, Kui, Kuvi, Pengo and Manda. In South Dravidian languages, such as Tamil and Malayalam, the intermediate stages were lost, and the change was initially posited as if Proto-Dravidian *c simply became Ø. However, scholars noted that Sanskrit and Prakrit loanwords beginning with s lost their leading consonant (e.g., it became Ø) but that those beginning with c did not: e.g., Sanskrit samaya- ‘time' became Tamil amaya; Sanskrit śrēṇi ‘ladder' > Prakrit sēṇi > Tamil ēṇi; Sanskrit sahasra- ‘1000' > Prakrit sahasira- > *sāsira- > Tamil *āyiram. This evidence demonstrates that a similar chain shift must have taken place at the undivided stage of South Dravidian. Telugu has followed the literary languages in this respect; unlike the other South-Central Dravidian languages, it has not preserved the s and h stages. As shown in the etymology table (Dravidian languages), lines 8a, 8b, and 25, this change was widespread, but not complete, across the South Dravidian languages.The third important sound change occurred in the South-Central Dravidian languages. In this group the apical consonants (comprising the alveolar and retroflex consonants) that were in the middle of a word were pushed to the initial (first) position. When the word began with a vowel and was followed by an apical consonant and a vowel, V1CapicalV2, it became a word-initial apical consonant followed by a vowel, CapicalV. Where a word began with an optional word-initial consonant followed by a vowel, an apical consonant, and a vowel, (C1)V1CapicalV2, it became a word-initial consonant followed by an apical consonant and a vowel, C1CapicalV. For instance, Proto-Dravidian *ir-a-ṇṭu ‘two' became Telugu reṇḍu and Kui rīnḍe; Proto-Dravidian *mar-an ‘tree' became Telugu mrān and Kui mrānu (see lines 10 and 15 of the etymology table (Dravidian languages)). Tulu presents evidence of this, and Irula has more than a dozen instances illustrating this ongoing change.These three phonological developments are accompanied by a considerable amount of grammatical sharing. For instance, all South Dravidian and South-Central Dravidian languages have two first person singular pronouns, one derived from Proto-Dravidian *yān and another from *ñān (see line 17 in the etymology table (Dravidian languages)), that must have been innovated before these two subgroups diverged. In contrast, Central Dravidian and North Dravidian do not have such doublets. Together with the three major sound changes, this evidence supports the view that South Dravidian and South-Central Dravidian were sister branches of Proto-South Dravidian. In other words, South-Central Dravidian does not go with Central Dravidian, as several scholars (including the author of the present article) once thought.South Dravidian phonological developmentA number of historical changes in phonology occurred within the South Dravidian subgroup. Tamil (Tamil language) palatalized Proto-Dravidian *k to *c when followed by a palatal vowel (i, ī, e, ē) sometime between the 3rd and 1st century BCE. Malayalam (Malayalam language), then a dialect of Tamil, also shared this change. When the palatal vowel was followed by a retroflex consonant, the change did not occur (e.g., in cases where the word took the shape k/cVpalatalCretroflex), because the vowels in this position were probably retracted and raised, as demonstrated by the lack of change in Proto-Dravidian *keṭ-u ‘to perish' and Tamil-Malayalam keṭ-u (see also lines 5 and 20 in the etymology table (Dravidian languages)).Malayalam also changed nasal + stop combinations to nasal + nasal; e.g., *nk (pronounced /ŋg/) became ṅṅ (/ṅ/ is a nasal sound produced at the same point as the velar stops /k/ and /g/). This type of change is illustrated by the transition from Tamil ponku ‘to boil' to Malayalam poṅṅu.A myriad of other changes also took place. Middle Kannada changed South Dravidian *p to h at the beginning of a word; e.g., Old Kannada *pāl changed to hāl(u) in Middle and Modern Kannada. In Kota, Toda, Kodagu, and Irula, several sound changes in the vowels of the root syllable occurred when followed by alveolar and retroflex consonants, as did the quality of vowels in the subsequent syllables: Proto-South Dravidian *kiḷ-i/*kiṇ-i ‘parrot' became Kodagu gïṇ-i; Proto-South Dravidian *eṇ-ṭṭ- ‘eight' developed to Toda öṭ; and South Dravidian kēḷ ‘to hear, ask' is the source of Irula kë:kka (infinitive, compare Tamil kēṭ-ka). A more complex series of changes is demonstrated by South Dravidian *koṭ-ay ‘umbrella,' which became pre-Kota (prehistoric Kota) *koḍ-e, then through vowel harmony became *keḍ-e, and eventually the final vowel was lost and ḍ became ṛ, producing the attested Kota form keṛ.In Tulu (Tulu language) and Kodagu a preceding labial consonant tended to change unrounded (that is, produced without rounding the lips) vowels i and e to rounded vowels u and o. An example is South Dravidian *piṭ-i ‘to hold, grasp,' which developed to Tulu-Kodagu puḍ-i. In most cases the factors that conditioned such changes were later lost in the nonliterary languages. They are recovered by applying the comparative method.South-Central Dravidian phonological developmentA major change that affected all members of this subgroup, albeit to different degrees, is called “apical displacement,” the shifting of apical (alveolar or retroflex) consonants from an original postvocalic position to prevocalic position in the root syllables. For instance, Proto-Dravidian *uẓ-u ‘to plow' became Kui, Kuvi, and Pengo ṛū- ‘to plow' and Telugu (Telugu language) ḍu-kki ‘plowing'; and Proto-Dravidian *car-a-cu became Telugu trācu, later tācu, Konda srāsu, Kui srācu, Kuvi rācu, and Pengo rāc (by loss of s-). Word-initial consonant clusters resulting from this change were simplified by the loss of one of the consonants in later Telugu, Kuvi, and Pengo. Telugu also had an ancient rule of palatalization that operated without any restrictions, unlike Old Tamil: Tamil keṭ-u ‘to perish' corresponds to Telugu ceḍ-u (see also lines 5 and 20 in the etymology table (Dravidian languages)).Central Dravidian phonological developmentIn pre-Parji (prehistoric Parji) the low vowels a and ā became e and ē when followed by an alveolar consonant, as when Proto-Dravidian *kal ‘stone' became Parji kel and Proto-Dravidian *man ‘to be' changed to Parji men. All of the Central Dravidian languages have merged the Proto-Dravidian alveolar stop */t/ with the dental /d/ or retroflex /ḍ/. This means that this parent sound retained its stop feature when it occurred between vowels, unlike in South and South-Central Dravidian where it became a trill /r/ (ṟ).North Dravidian phonological developmentIn the North Dravidian languages, Proto-Dravidian *k became x before non-high vowels—namely a, e, and o (see lines 1, 3, and 6 in the etymology table (Dravidian languages)). Proto-Dravidian *c became k before u and ū; e.g., *cuṭu ‘to be hot' became Kurukh-Malto kuṛ ‘embers.'Under the influence of the neighbouring Indic and Iranian languages, Brahui had lost the short vowels e and o; therefore, Proto-Dravidian *e developed to i/a/ē and *o to u/a/ō under different conditions. Proto-Dravidian *n and *m became d and b respectively when followed by the front vowels i or e; thus, Proto-Dravidian *nett-Vr became Brahui ditar ‘blood.'Typological sound changesSome sound changes were motivated by typological rather than historical pressures. These differ from the historical sound changes in several respects: they do not have a fixed, definable time frame, except that they are all post-Proto-Dravidian; there is evidence that they have been occurring in different languages at different times and some are ongoing, producing an identical final result; they cut across the subgroups set up on the basis of genetically shared innovations; and it seems possible that their spread can be defined in terms of broad geographical regions.These changes have led to adjustments in the descendant languages, most notably a greater symmetry and simplification in their sound systems. In Dravidian, for instance, word-initial *y- and *ñ-, which had been restricted such that the vowels following them could only be a or e, changed considerably: *y- was lost totally while *ñ- merged with the more frequent *n-.The presence of three stops (stop) in the dental–alveolar–hard palate region was an unusual situation, as very few languages in the world distinguish between the three possible pronunciations of stop sounds (e.g., between /t/, /ṯ/, and /ṭ/). This situation led to the eventual merger of the alveolar (/ṯ/) with either the dentals (/t/, /d/) or the retroflexes (/ṭ/, /ḍ/) in most of the languages. Only a few modern languages—Malayalam, Kota, and Toda (and other Nilgiri languages)—still preserve the erstwhile difference.Two syllable types—(C)V:C(V) and (C)VCC(V) with balanced weight—became standardized in Dravidian. A number of internal changes led to this result, which also coincided with the structure of stems in the Indo-Aryan languages with which the Dravidian languages had maintained contact for over a millennium. In this case, Proto-Dravidian bases of the types (C)VCVCCV and (C)V:CC- were adjusted to one of the above types: Proto-Dravidian *āṭu ‘to play' led to *āṭṭam ‘play, game,' which in turn became Telugu *āḍu, *āṭa. In addition, the loss of a high vowel i or u in the second (unaccented) syllable led to many of the trisyllabic forms becoming disyllabic in the descendant languages: Proto-Dravidian *mar-u-ntu ‘medicine' developed to Telugu mandu, Kannada mardu, maddu, Parji merd, and Kurukh mandar.Grammatical features and changesThe major grammatical categories are nouns and verbs. Dravidian languages use subject–object–verb (SOV) word order; the verb occupies the final position in a sentence, a characteristic that is also true of the Indo-Aryan languages. In addition, adjectives precede the nouns they qualify, nouns carry postpositions and not prepositions, adverbs precede verbs, and auxiliaries follow the main verb. The final element (predicate) in a sentence can be verbal or nominal. Thus, to render the phrase “he is a gentleman” in Telugu, one combines āyana ‘he' + peddamaniṣi ‘a gentleman'; Telugu has no verb corresponding to ‘to be' in English.The verbal systemIn complex sentences, the main verb clause occupies the final position and is preceded by subordinate clauses that end in nonfinite verbs (those that are perfective, durative, conditional, concessive, and so on). A sentence that ends in a noun phrase predicate can become subordinate by the addition of a nonfinite verb such as *ā ‘to be,' or *yan ‘to say.' Quotations are signaled by a quotative particle derived from the verb ‘to say' meaning ‘having said.'Interrogative sentences (questions) are formed by using either an interrogative pronoun or adverb (meaning who, which, when, where, etc.) or by adding an interrogative particle (*-ā) to the phrase or clause questioned.Relative clauses can be formed by changing the verb to a tensed participle and by shifting the noun that it qualifies to the following position. In the Telugu phrase (superscript numbers denote matching Telugu and English words) rāmayya1 pulinī2 campæḍu3 ‘Ramayya1 killed3 a tiger2' can be shifted to create a nonfinite relative clause rāmayya1campina2 puli 3 ‘the tiger3 that Ramayya1 killed2,' or pulini1 campina2 rāmayya3 ‘Ramayya3 who killed2 the tiger1.'There is a class of finite verbs that includes negation as part of the inflection, as in Konda vānṟu1 -en2 (literally, ‘he1 does-negative-he'2') ‘he1 does not do2.' Proto-Dravidian has a negative verb *cil ‘to be not,' which is complementary with the verbs meaning ‘to be.' This is a typical feature of the Dravidian languages.The nominal systemNouns carry number and gender and are inflected for case (role in the sentence, such as subject, direct object, or indirect object), as are pronouns and numerals, which are subclasses of nouns. As noted above, in most of the languages, adverbs of time and place carry case inflection like nouns but lack gender and number distinction. The gender-number-person categories of the subject phrase in a sentence are reflected as the final constituent of certain finite verbs, as demonstrated by Tamil avan1 va-nt-ān2 (literally ‘he1 come-past-person'2) ‘he1 came2.' Malayalam has lost this agreement feature in finite verbs.Gender is specified in the third person in Dravidian but not in the first and second persons; he, she, and it are differentiated, but I, we, and you do not reflect gender. In Dravidian, gender is primarily determined by the meaning of the noun or pronoun and secondarily by certain formal features. The meaning categories are ‘male human (man),' ‘female human (woman),' ‘human (people),' and ‘others,' the last contrasting with the three former categories.Demonstrative pronouns represent the gender differences best. The Proto-Dravidian gender was presumably masculine versus non-masculine, in both the singular and the plural. This was reflected in the demonstrative pronouns, which in the singular were masculine *aw-antu ‘he (man)' and non-masculine *a-tu ‘other' (meaning both ‘woman' and ‘any nonhuman animate or thing'). In the plural the masculine pronoun was *aw-ar ‘men' (which could include women when referring to mixed groups) and non-masculine *aw-ay ‘others' (women, other animates, or things). This system is preserved by the languages of Central Dravidian and South-Central Dravidian (other than Telugu).In contrast, South Dravidian had a three-way distinction in the singular (masculine, feminine, neuter) and a two-way distinction in the plural (human, nonhuman). By innovating a feminine singular *aw-aḷ ‘she' (female human), the South Dravidian languages thus restricted the meaning of *a-tu to ‘it' (nonhuman animate/thing). In the plural, South Dravidian languages have generalized the meaning of *aw-ar to ‘human' (men, men and women, or women), thus restricting the meaning of *aw-ay to ‘nonhuman' (nonhuman animates and things). Telugu of South-Central Dravidian and Kurukh-Malto of North Dravidian have preserved the Proto-Dravidian gender in the singular but independently extended the meaning of *aw-ar to ‘human' as happened in South Dravidian. Some scholars consider this type as representing the Proto-Dravidian gender system.If the system in South-Central and Central Dravidian is understood to reflect the retention of the parent language, the shift of meaning in the plural in the other languages can be explained as a natural one from ‘men' to ‘men and women' (mixed groups) to ‘women' (exclusively), thus generalizing the meaning to any human group. If instead the meaning ‘human' (or ‘people') as represented in South Dravidian and in Telugu-Kurukh-Malto were taken as the original plural category in Proto-Dravidian, it would be difficult to think of the social and grammatical contexts that would induce a split of the meaning of ‘people' into the two meanings—‘men' and ‘others' (women, other animates, and things)—that are found in Central Dravidian and South-Central Dravidian. Because of contact with Hindi and Bengali, Kurukh and Malto introduced gender distinction in the first and second persons also.Toda and Erukala (a dialect of Tamil) of South Dravidian and Brahui of North Dravidian have lost gender and preserved only number. The basic forms of numerals have neuter (‘others') agreement; a human suffix *-war or a derivative thereof is added to numeral roots when they classify the human category. Examples include Telugu reṇḍu pustakālu ‘two books' and naluguru manuṣulu ‘four people' (-guru is from *-war).There were two numbers in Proto-Dravidian, singular and plural. The singular was not indicated by any sign, while the plural had two markers—namely, human plural, which was represented by the suffix *-Vr, and nonhuman plural, which was represented by the suffixes *-(n)k(k)a and *-ḷ or by a combination of these, *-(n)k(k)aḷ. South-Central Dravidian (except Telugu) and Brahui use the first form, *-(n)k(k)a; Central Dravidian and Tulu use the second and third forms; Telugu uses the second alone; and South Dravidian uses the third alone. Apparently all the forms were in use dialectally in Proto-Dravidian. In the process of simplifying the system, the latter three suffixes have come to be used as common plural for both human and nonhuman nouns.The reconstructed personal pronouns are *yān or *yan- ‘I,' *yām/*yam- ‘we (excluding the people spoken to),' *ñām/*ñam- ‘we (including the people spoken to),' *nin/*nin- ‘you (singular),' *nīm/*nim- ‘you (plural),' and *tān/*tan- ‘self' (often used as a substitute for the third-person pronouns). The third-person pronouns are derived from deictic bases *aH- ‘that,' *iH- ‘this,' and *yaH- ‘what.'South Dravidian and South-Central Dravidian languages innovated a second singular form in the first person, *ñān/*ñan-, perhaps backformed by analogy from the first inclusive plural *ñām/*ñam-. This led to the loss of the original inclusive-exclusive difference (later restored through fresh innovations) and was followed by a restructuring of the pronominal system in the first person (see line 17 in the etymology table (Dravidian languages)). The as-yet-unexplained alternation between long and short vowels in personal pronouns could be a consequence of a laryngeal *H in the reconstructed forms, including *yaH-n, *yaH-m, *taH-n, *taH-m, and so on. The final -n and -m represent singular and plural.The nominative (subject noun) case is not represented by any suffix. Every noun has an oblique stem in the singular and plural that is formed by the addition of a suffix (derived from Proto-Dravidian *i, *a, *tt, or *n or a combination of these, in addition to a zero suffix [Ø]) to which non-nominative case markers are added. The oblique stem is used in genitive meaning and can occur as the first member of noun + noun compounds. Only accusative (*-ay, *-n), dative (*-[n]kk), and possibly locative can be reconstructed for Proto-Dravidian. Each of the Dravidian languages has developed several postpositions from independent words that indicate case meanings (e.g., near, up to, until, purpose, cause, above, below, by the side of).The Dravidian languages have a decimal system. The numerals 1 to 5 and 8 to 10 consist of one of several roots plus one of three fused neuter morphemes, *t, *tt, or *k, thus *on-tu (roots *ōr/*or-, *on-) ‘1'; *ir-aṇ-ṭu (*īr/*ir-V) ‘2'; *muH-n-tu/*mū-n-tu (*muH-/*mū-) ‘3'; *nāl-n(kk)u (*nāl/*nal-V-) ‘4'; *caym-tu (*cay-) ‘5'; *eṇ-ṭṭu (*eṇ-) ‘8'; *paH-tu (*paH-) ‘10'. The forms *cātu (*cat-V-) ‘6' and *ēẓ (*eẓ-V-) ‘7' are also used with neuter agreement. The reconstruction for ‘9,' however, has some problems. Proto-Dravidian *toḷ/*toṇ occurs in compounds with the words for 10, 100, 1,000 as second members with the meaning ‘1/10th less'—comparable to Tamil toṇ-ṇūṟu ‘90 (or 10 less 100),' toḷḷāyiram ‘900 (100 less 1,000),' and on-pattu ‘9 (1 less 10).' However, Telugu tom-badi (from *toṇ-pat) ‘90' implies that *toṇ means ‘9.' The South Dravidian languages have cognates that support the first, ‘1/10th less,' meaning. The number words for 11 to 19, 21 to 29, and so on are formed by compounds of words for 10 or 20 followed by the words for 1 to 9—e.g., *paHt-ontu ‘11' and *pat-i(n)- mu:ntu ‘13.' Compounds meaning ‘two-ten,' ‘three-ten,' ‘four-ten,' for example, denote 2 × 10, 3 × 10, 4 × 10—e.g., *iru-paHtu ‘20,' *muH-paHtu ‘30,' and *nal-paHtu ‘40.' Proto-Dravidian *nūtu ‘100' is the highest numeral reconstructed. Telugu has a nativelike form wēyi ‘1,000,' but its etymology is uncertain. All other higher numerals are borrowed from Sanskrit.inflection is expressed by combining the following elements: a verb stem (simple, complex, or compound) + (optional modal auxiliary) + tense + gender-number-person (g-n-p) marker. Each of these components conveys a particular meaning. A complex verb stem provides the general meaning implied by the verb and may also carry markers that indicate the focus of the action, whether transitive/causative (done to or causing something e.g., “I washed his hair”) or reflexive (done by the subject to itself; e.g., “I washed my hair”). A modal auxiliary denotes such categories as ability/inability, permission/prohibition, probability/improbability, or obligative/non-obligative.tense expresses the notion of past, present, or future action. Proto-Dravidian had two tenses, past and nonpast. The past tense was signaled in Proto-Dravidian by the suffixes *-t, *-tt, *-nt, *-ntt, and *-in, which apparently occurred with different classes of stems. The reflexes (derivations) of these suffixes are found in different languages and subgroups. In addition, Kurukh, Malto, and Brahui have evidence for *kk and *cc as markers of past tense. There is evidence for *cc in Proto-South Dravidian also. The nonpast was signaled by *nk/*nkk and *mp/*mpp.A verb (finite or nonfinite) can be preceded by noun phrases that denote various g-n-p markers, such as object (direct or indirect), instrumentality (whether the object will be used to accomplish something), goal (or recipient of action), and the source, location, and direction of the action in reference to the object. Nonfinite verbs do not carry g-n-p markers, and they head subordinate clauses that precede the main clause in a complex sentence. Proto-Dravidian had sequences of two finite verbs in negative past of which the first was the main verb and the second an inflected form of a verb ‘to be.' In some of South-Central Dravidian languages these two contracted into a single finite verb—e.g., Old Telugu cēyāḍ(u) (literally ‘does-not-he') ‘he was' and ayye ‘he did not do.'Particles, adjectives, and onomatopoeiaIn addition to nouns and verbs, there is a class of clitics or particles that is indeclinable; many of these can be shown historically as derived from verbs. Nouns in the genitive case function as adjectives. There is, however, a small class of adjectives that occur in compounds: Proto-Dravidian *kem ‘red,' *weḷ ‘white,' *kitu ‘small,' *pēr/*per-V- ‘big,' and so on. The terms *aH ‘that' (remote), *iH ‘this' (proximate), *uH ‘yonder' (intermediate) and *yaH ‘what' (interrogative) occur only as adjectives and underlie the derivation of many demonstrative pronouns and adverbs, such as *aw-an-tu ‘he, that man,' *a-tu ‘her, that woman; it, that thing;' *ap-pōẓ ‘then, that time' became *iw-an-tu ‘this man,' *i-tu ‘this woman, this thing,' and *ip-pōẓ ‘this time, now.'Proto-Dravidian roots were monosyllabic. To these were added tense and voice suffixes. In some languages these suffixes lost the tense signification but retained the distinction between intransitive and transitive voice. In these cases, the suffixes subsequently lost the voice distinction and became mere formatives or augments to monosyllabic roots. Derivations of the Proto-Dravidian root *tir- ‘the general concept of roundness' provides an example. The root accumulated several accretions, the grammatical meaning of which got obscured within Proto-Dravidian itself. The situation was further complicated because the Proto-Dravidian sequence of nasal + stop + stop developed to stop + stop or nasal + stop (voiceless) in different Dravidian languages. Thus, the accumulation of accretions combined with these phonological changes to create such forms as *tir-i- ‘to turn,' *tir-a-y ‘to roll,' *tir-a-ḷ ‘to become round,' *tir-u-ku verb intransitive ‘to turn': *tir-u-kku verb transitive ‘to twist,' *tir-u-mpu verb intransitive: *tir-u-mppu verb transitive ‘to twist, turn,' *tir-u-ntu verb intransitive ‘to be corrected,' *tir-u-nttu verb transitive ‘to correct, rectify.'Onomatopoetic (onomatopoeia) words and echo words function as adverbs of manner and also as descriptive adjectives with the infinitive of the verb ‘to be.' Two clitics can be reconstructed for Proto-Dravidian—namely, interrogative *-ā and emphatic *-ē. Each language and subgroup has evolved many clitics or particles, mostly representing contraction of certain finite verbs.Dravidian and Indo-Aryan (Indo-Aryan languages)As mentioned above, Dravidian and Indo-Aryan languages share many convergent features due to their long proximity to one another. The major features of Indo-Aryan phonology that are attributed to Dravidian influence are the voicing or weakening of the intervocalic stop consonants in Pali and Prakrits; the simplification of consonant clusters (e.g., Sanskrit (Sanskrit language) aṣṭa- became Prakrit aṭṭha- ‘8,' Sanskrit sapta- became Prakrit satta- ‘7,' etc.); the emergence of (C)V:C or (C)VCC word-bases by resolving the older (C)V:CC type into one of these (e.g., Sanskrit dīrgha- developed into Prakrit dīgha-/diggha- ‘long' rather than *dīggha-); and the proliferation of retroflex consonants, which did not occur in the other Indo-European languages.Among the grammatical features, the important ones were the dative subject construction (e.g., ‘to him anger occurred' instead of ‘he became angry'); the use of the particle api in Sanskrit in the sense of Dravidian *-um ‘even, also, and, indefinite'; morphological causatives (Sanskrit gam- ‘to go,' gamaya- ‘to cause to go,' Konda ki- ‘to do,' kibis- ‘to cause to do'); the use of the perfective participle or gerund as head of subordinate clauses (Sanskrit kṛtvā ‘having done,' Telugu cēsi ‘having done'); the extensive use of echo words; and the use of the particle iti ‘so and so' in Sanskrit parallel to the Dravidian participle of the verb *en-/*an- ‘to say' as a quotative marker (corresponding to English that).Distant relationshipsSeveral studies made over the past two centuries assert that the Dravidian languages had some kind of genetic relationship with the Ural-Altaic languages of northern Europe. Attempts have been made to relate Dravidian with Elamite (Elamite language), Sumerian (Sumerian language), Basque (Basque language), the Sub-Saharan languages of Africa, Korean (Korean language), and Japanese (Japanese language).Because the traditional methods of comparative linguistics remain the standard for proof of genetic relationship, most of these claims have remained unproved. However, the comparative method fails when the data are not extensive enough to establish systematic correspondences among the sound systems and grammars of languages with a reasonable frequency. This problem becomes especially acute when the time gap spans millennia and a number of sister languages become extinct, events that obscure possible intermediate links in reconstruction. For instance, one could not conceive of any genetic relationship between Tamil-Malayalam-Kannada uppu ‘salt' and Kui sāru ‘salt,' if the link forms preserved by Parji-Kolami cup, Gondi sovar (derived from Proto-South-Central Dravidian *cow-ar, which came from Proto-Dravidian *cuw-ar/*cup-ar), and Konda sōru were not available (see lines 8a and 8b of the etymology table (Dravidian languages)). Linguists must develop a new methodology for establishing distant relationships between language families. According to the controversial Nostratic hypothesis, for instance, not only Indo-European and Dravidian but also Uralic (Uralic languages), Afro-Asiatic (Afro-Asiatic languages), Altaic (Altaic languages), and Kartvelian (Kartvelian languages) were alleged to have sprung from a common parent.Some studies claim Proto-Dravidian as the language of the Indus (Indus civilization) or Harappan civilization (Harappā) (approximately 2500–1300 BCE). More than 3,000 soapstone seals have been discovered with inscriptions written from right to left and left to right. The writing system was partly pictographic (pictography) and partly syllabic, with more than 400 recurring signs. Computer studies of the concordances of these inscriptions indicate that the language was a suffixing and a non-prefixing one. However, this observation is the only basis for its possibly being a Dravidian language; other evidence indicates that the language was Indo-European.Bhadriraju KrishnamurtiDravidian cognates from representative languagesDravidian cognates from representative languagesA list of Dravidian cognates from representative languages is provided in the table. Dravidian cognates from representative languagesAdditional ReadingGeneral worksSurveys of the field of comparative Dravidian include Bhadriraju Krishnamurti, The Dravidian Languages (2003); and Kamil V. Zvelebil, Dravidian Linguistics: An Introduction (1990). Other works include Bhadriraju Krishnamurti, Comparative Dravidian Linguistics: Current Perspectives (2001); and Robert Caldwell, A Comparative Grammar of the Dravidian or South-Indian Family of Languages, 3rd ed., rev. and ed. by J.L. Wyatt and T. Ramakrishna Pillai (1913, reprinted 1998).A rich collection of stimulating essays about India as a linguistic area are in Murray B. Emeneau, Language and Linguistic Area (1980). Veneeta Z. Acson and Richard L. Leed (eds.), For Gordon H. Fairbanks, (1985), is a festschrift on Indian languages. A comprehensive bibliography of all aspects of Dravidian languages and linguistics is L.S. Ramaiah, General and Comparative Dravidian Languages and Linguistics (1994).Phonology and morphologyA monumental work dealing with cognates from over 24 languages and dialects, and a necessary tool for comparative phonology, is T. Burrow and Murray B. Emeneau, A Dravidian Etymological Dictionary, 2nd ed. (1984). Bhadriraju Krishnamurti, Telugu Verbal Bases: A Comparative and Descriptive Study (1961, reprinted 1972), is the first comprehensive account of comparative Dravidian phonology and derivational morphology of verbal bases in Dravidian from the standpoint of Telugu. Comparative studies of morphology include P.S. Subrahmanyam, Dravidian Verb Morphology: A Comparative Study (1971); and P.S. Subrahmanyam, Dravidian Comparative Phonology (1983). The first serious attempt at the reconstruction of Proto-Dravidian morpho-syntactic phenomena is Sanford B. Steever, Analysis to Synthesis (1993).Historical studiesA summary of the theories about the origin and identification of the Dravidian people is Andrée F. Sjoberg (ed.), Symposium on Dravidian Civilization, chapter 1, “Who Are the Dravidians?”, 1–26 (1971). Lucid essays on aspects of prehistoric contact between Dravidian and Indo-Aryan are in Madhav M. Deshpande and Peter Edwin Hook (eds.), Aryan and Non-Aryan in India (1979).Bhadriraju Krishnamurti
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