City (pop., 2000 est.: 255,500), south-central Poland, situated on the Warta River.

The two original settlements, Old Czȩstochowa (founded in the 13th century) and Jasna Góra (14th century), merged in 1826. Noted for its wealth by the 15th century, the city resisted sieges by the Swedes in 1655 and 1705 but was occupied by the Germans in World Wars I and II. Industries include textiles, paper, steel, iron, chemicals, and food products. The famous painting of Our Lady of Czȩstochowa (The Black Madonna) is kept in an ancient monastery.

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Universalium. 2010.

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