Burgoyne, John

Burgoyne, John
born 1722, Sutton, Bedfordshire, Eng.
died June 4, 1792, London

British general.

After serving in the Seven Years' War he was elected to the British House of Commons in 1761 and 1768. Assigned to Canada in 1776, he began a campaign to join British forces from the north, south, and west to isolate the rebellious New England colonies. In 1777 his army captured Fort Ticonderoga, N.Y., but was stopped at the Hudson River by a larger army of colonists under Horatio Gates and Benedict Arnold. After several months of fighting, he surrendered to Gates at Saratoga Springs, N.Y.; he returned to England to face criticism for his defeat.

* * *

▪ British general
born 1722, Sutton, Bedfordshire, England
died June 4, 1792, London
 British general, best remembered for his defeat by superior American forces in the Saratoga (Saratoga, Battles of) (New York) campaign of 1777, during the American Revolution.

      After serving with distinction in the Seven Years' War (1756–63), Burgoyne was elected to the House of Commons in 1761 and again in 1768. Assigned to Canada in 1776 as a major general, he entered into an offensive in which British armies from the north (Burgoyne's troops), south (General Sir William Howe (Howe, William Howe, 5th Viscount)'s), and west (Colonel Barry St. Leger's) would unite at Albany, New York, isolating New England from the other rebellious colonies. Burgoyne's force captured Fort Ticonderoga, New York, on July 6, 1777, but, after reaching the Hudson River, was fought to a standstill by a much larger army commanded successively by General Philip Schuyler (Schuyler, Philip John) and General Horatio Gates (Gates, Horatio), who were brilliantly assisted by Brigadier General Benedict Arnold (Arnold, Benedict). Exhausting his food and ammunition and receiving no aid from Howe (who chose to fight in Pennsylvania) or St. Leger (who was defeated at Oriskany, New York, and withdrew westward), Burgoyne had to surrender to Gates north of Saratoga Springs on October 17, 1777. Paroled along with his troops, he returned to England, where he faced severe criticism. For a short time (1782–83) he was commander in chief in Ireland, but he retired increasingly to private life, in which he was a leader of London society and fashion. He also wrote several plays, of which the most successful was The Heiress (1786).

* * *

Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Burgoyne,John — Bur·goyne (bûr goinʹ, bûrʹgoin ), John. Known as “Gentleman Johnny.” 1722 1792. British general and playwright. In the American Revolution he captured Fort Ticonderoga (July 6, 1777) but lost the Battle of Saratoga (October 17, 1777). The Heiress …   Universalium

  • Burgoyne, John — (1722, Sutton, Bedfordshire, Inglaterra–4 jun. 1792, Londres). General británico. Después de combatir en la guerra de los Siete Años fue elegido miembro de la Cámara de los Comunes de Gran Bretaña, en 1761 y en 1768. Destinado a Canadá en 1776,… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • BURGOYNE, JOHN —    English general, and distinguished as the last sent out to subdue the revolt in the American colonies, and, after a victory or two, being obliged to capitulate to General Gates at Saratoga, fell into disfavour; defended his conduct with… …   The Nuttall Encyclopaedia

  • Burgoyne, John — (1723 1792)    Born in England. Educated at Westminster, and entered the army in 1740. In 1775 served in New England; second in command, 1776, and lieutenant general, 1777. In the latter year succeeded General Carleton as commander in chief of… …   The makers of Canada

  • John Burgoyne — (24 février 1723 – 4 août 1792) général britannique, fut battu par les Américains et se vit contraint en 1777 à signer la capitulation de Saratoga, qui décida la France à s unir aux États Unis pour assurer leur indépen …   Wikipédia en Français

  • John Burgoyne — Gentleman Johnny Burgoyne John Burgoyne, auch Gentleman Johnny genannt, (* 24. Februar 1722 in Bedfordshire, England; † 4. Juni 1792 in London) war ein britischer General und Schriftsteller …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • John Burgoyne — Retrato de Burgoyne, por Joshua Reynolds, ca. 1766. El gener …   Wikipedia Español

  • Burgoyne — People named Burgoyne : *Burgoyne Diller (1906 1965), American abstract painter *Hugh Talbot Burgoyne (1833 1870), Irish captain of the Royal Navy, son of John Fox Burgoyne *John Burgoyne (1722 1792), British general during the American… …   Wikipedia

  • John Fox Burgoyne — Field Marshal Sir John Fox Burgoyne, 1st Baronet GCB (July 24, 1782 ndash; October 7, 1871) was a senior British Army officer.Burgoyne was the illegitimate son of General John Burgoyne and opera singer Susan Caulfield. In 1798, he was… …   Wikipedia

  • john — /jon/, n. Slang. 1. a toilet or bathroom. 2. (sometimes cap.) a fellow; guy. 3. (sometimes cap.) a prostitute s customer. [generic use of the proper name] * * * I known as John Lackland born Dec. 24, 1167, Oxford, Eng. died Oct. 18/19, 1216,… …   Universalium

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”