- Braque, Georges
died Aug. 31, 1963, ParisFrench painter.He studied painting in Le Havre, then in Paris at a private academy and briefly at the École des Beaux-Arts. Though his earliest works were influenced by Impressionism, his first important paintings (1905–07) were in the style of Fauvism pioneered by André Derain and Henri Matisse; in 1907 he exhibited and sold six of these paintings at the Salon des Indépendants. Abandoning Fauvism in 1907, he invented with Pablo Picasso the revolutionary new style known as Cubism. He painted mostly still lifes featuring geometric shapes and low-key colour harmonies. In 1912 he introduced the collage, or papier collé (pasted-paper picture), by attaching three pieces of wallpaper to the drawing Fruit Dish and Glass. By the 1920s he was a prosperous, well-established modern master. In 1923 and 1925 he designed stage sets for Sergey Diaghilev's Ballets Russes. He enjoyed a long and prestigious career; in his later years he was honoured with important exhibitions throughout the world. In 1961 he became the first living artist to have his works exhibited in the Louvre.
* * *▪ French artistIntroductionborn May 13, 1882, Argenteuil, Francedied August 31, 1963, ParisFrench painter, one of the important revolutionaries of 20th-century art who, together with Pablo Picasso (Picasso, Pablo), developed Cubism. His paintings consist primarily of still lifes that are remarkable for their robust construction, low-key colour harmonies, and serene, meditative quality.Early lifeBraque was born just seven months after Picasso, in a small community on the Seine near Paris that was one of the centres of the Impressionist (Impressionism) movement in the 1870s. His father and grandfather, both amateur artists, were the owners of a prosperous house-painting firm. In 1890 the family moved to Le Havre, which had also been, in the time of the seascapist Eugène Boudin (Boudin, Eugène) and the young Claude Monet, an early centre of Impressionism. The boy attended the local public school, accompanied his father on painting expeditions, and developed an interest in sports, including boxing, that gave him, as an adult, the look of a professional athlete. He also learned to play the flute.At 15 Braque enrolled in an evening course at the Le Havre Academy of Fine Arts. He left school at 17 for a year of apprenticeship as a house painter and interior decorator, first in Le Havre and then in Paris; during that period he picked up his solid, professional handling of materials and knowledge of the artisan's tricks—the imitation of wood grain, for instance—that he would frequently utilize in his Cubist pictures. After a year of military service he decided, with the help of an allowance from his family, to become an artist. Between 1902 and 1904 he studied at a Paris private academy and, very briefly, at the École des Beaux-Arts. In his free hours he frequented the Louvre, where he admired especially Egyptian and Archaic Greek works.Braque's early paintings reveal, as might be expected from a childhood spent in Normandy, the influence of the Impressionists (Impressionism), in particular that of Monet and of Camille Pissarro. A little later he experienced a revelation as he studied the firm structures and union of colour and tonal values in the work of Paul Cézanne (Cézanne, Paul). Braque can be said to have begun to find his way in 1905, when he visited the Paris Salon d'Automne and saw the violent explosion of arbitrary colour in the room occupied by the paintings of the group nicknamed Les Fauves (Fauvism) (“Wild Beasts”). During the next two years he became a convinced, if rather prudent and tradition-minded, Fauvist, working for a while at Antwerp, Belgium, and then on the French Mediterranean coast near Marseille, at L'Estaque and La Ciotat.In the spring of 1907 Braque exhibited six paintings at the Paris Salon des Indépendants and sold them all. Later that year he signed a contract with a dealer, Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler (Kahnweiler, Daniel-Henry), who had recently opened a small Paris gallery destined to play an important role in the history of modern art. Kahnweiler introduced him to the avant-garde poet and critic Guillaume Apollinaire (Apollinaire, Guillaume), who in turn introduced him to Picasso (Picasso, Pablo). Braque was at first disconcerted by Picasso's recent work Les Demoiselles d'Avignon (1907). “Listen,” he is reported to have said, “in spite of your explanations your painting looks as if you wanted to make us eat tow, or drink gasoline and spit fire.” Despite these reservations, Braque painted his Large Nude (1908), a somewhat less-radical take on Picasso's use of distorted planes and shallow space. The two artists became close friends, and within a few months they were engaged in the unprecedented process of mutual influence from which Cubism emerged.CubismIt is impossible to say which of the two was the principal inventor of the revolutionary new style, for at the height of their collaboration they exchanged ideas almost daily. Picasso provided, with his proto-Cubist Demoiselles, the initial liberating shock. But it was Braque, largely because of his admiration for Cézanne (Cézanne, Paul), who provided much of the early tendency toward geometric forms. During the summer of 1908, in southern France, he painted a series of radically innovative canvases, of which the most celebrated is Houses at L'Estaque. These works reflect the influence of Braque's idol, Cézanne; this influence is seen most obviously in the fact that L'Estaque was a favourite painting site for Cézanne, but also in the fact that Braque emulated the older painter's use of colourful, tilted planes and his reduction of form to geometric, often cylindrical, shapes. Braque's works abstracted the landscape beyond the work of Cézanne, however. The slab volumes, sober colouring, and warped perspective in his paintings from this period are typical of the first part of what has been called the Analytical phase of Cubism. After these radical works were rejected by the Salon d'Automne, that fall Braque had a show at Kahnweiler's gallery and provoked a remark about “cubes” from the Paris critic Louis Vauxcelles that soon blossomed into a stylistic label.Starting in 1911 Braque—now teamed, as he said later, with Picasso as if they were roped alpinists—reached the high point of Analytical Cubism. The works Braque and Picasso created during these years are practically interchangeable. The artists broke down planes and eliminated traditional perspectival space, which resulted in crowded canvases of subjects depicted so broken apart that they were nearly impossible to perceive. This formal breakdown of forms and space, coupled with a shockingly subdued palette, created a nearly abstract, difficult art unlike anything seen before in the history of painting. Braque's Man with a Guitar is an example: the colours are brown, gray, and green, the pictorial space is almost flat, viewpoints and light sources are multiplied, contours are broken, volumes are often transparent, and facets are turned into apparently illogical simultaneous views. While many of the tendencies of Analytical Cubism veered toward abstraction, an equally powerful undercurrent utilized figuration. For example, in Violin and Palette (1909), Braque painted a trompe l'oeil nail in the midst of the near-abstract planes. In 1911, he stenciled letters into The Portuguese.In 1912 Picasso and Braque entered Synthetic Cubism, the phase in which subject matter became more central as the artists moved their forms out of the confusion of contrasting planes. In 1912 Braque created what is generally considered the first papier collé by attaching three pieces of wallpaper to the drawing Fruit Dish and Glass. He also began to introduce sand and sawdust onto his canvases. This work significantly strengthened the idea, full of consequences for the future of art, that a picture is not an illusionistic representation but rather an autonomous object.During the early part of the Cubist adventure, Braque had a studio in Montmartre but often worked elsewhere: in 1909 at La Roche-Guyon, on the Seine, west of Paris; in 1910 back at L'Estaque; and in 1911 at Céret, a village on the Mediterranean side of the foothills of the Pyrenees. In 1912 he married Marcelle Lapré and rented a house at Sorgues, a small town in the Rhône valley near Avignon. With the outbreak of World War I, he entered the army as an infantry sergeant and served with distinction, being decorated twice in 1914 for bravery. In 1915 he suffered a serious head wound, which was followed by a trepanation, several months in the hospital, and a long period of convalescence at home in Sorgues. During this period he added to the aphorisms he had been in the habit of scribbling on the margins of his drawings, and in 1917 a collection of these sayings, put together by his friend the poet Pierre Reverdy (Reverdy, Pierre), was published in the review Nord–Sud as “Thoughts and Reflections on Painting.” Even a brief sampling can suggest the quality, at once poetic and rational, of Braque's mind and the sort of thinking that lay behind Cubism:New means, new subjects. . . . The aim is not to reconstitute an anecdotal fact, but to constitute a pictorial fact. . . . To work from nature is to improvise. . . . The senses deform, the mind forms. . . . I love the rule that corrects emotion.Released from further military service, the artist rejoined the Cubist movement in 1917, which was then still in its Synthetic phase. He and Picasso would never work together again, however. In 1917–18 Braque painted, partly under the influence of his friend Juan Gris (Gris, Juan), a Spanish-born Cubist master whose paintings were strongly Synthetic Cubist, the geometric, strongly coloured, nearly abstract Woman Musician and some still lifes in a similar manner. Rapidly, however, he moved away from austere geometry toward forms softened by looser drawing and freer brushwork, as seen in Still Life with Playing Cards (1919). From that point onward his style ceased to evolve in the methodical way it had during the successive phases of Cubism; it became a series of personal variations on the stylistic heritage of the eventful years before World War I.International acclaimBy the 1920s Braque was a prosperous, established modern master and a part of the well-to-do, cultured circles of postwar French society. Working again much of the time in Paris, he transferred his studio from Montmartre to Montparnasse in 1922 and three years later moved into a new Left Bank house designed for him by a modern-minded architect, Auguste Perret (Perret, Auguste). In 1923 and again in 1925 he had commissions from Sergey Diaghilev (Diaghilev, Sergey Pavlovich), the great ballet impresario, for the design of stage sets. In 1930 he acquired a country residence at Varengeville, a group of hamlets on the Normandy coast near Dieppe. His painting during these years can be most easily classified, given its stylistic variety, on the basis of subject matter. From 1922 to about 1926 he did a series of canephores, pagan-looking women carrying fruit. Overlapping this group in time is a series of cheminées, fireplace mantelpieces laden with fruit and sometimes a guitar. By 1928 he created a series of gueridons, pedestal tables holding the objects previously assigned to mantelpieces.In 1931 Braque undertook a new medium of expression: white drawings, incised on plaster plaques painted black, reminiscent of ancient Greek pottery designs. Later in the 1930s he began a series of figure paintings—first-rate examples are Le Duo and The Painter and His Model—and in 1937 he won the Carnegie Prize. During World War II he produced a collection of small, generally flat, decorative pieces of sculpture, in a style recalling again ancient Greece and centring on vaguely mythological themes.After the war Braque resumed his practice of executing a number of paintings on a single subject: first a series of billiard tables, then one of studio interiors, and then one of large, lumbering birds that seem charged with some forgotten archaic symbolism. During the last years of his life Braque was honoured with important retrospective exhibitions throughout the world, and in December 1961 he became the first living artist to have his works exhibited in the Louvre.Roy Donald McMullen Ed.Additional ReadingThe artist's life and work are explored in John Russell, G. Braque (1959); Jean Leymarie, Braque (1961; originally published in French, 1961), and Georges Braque (1988); Edwin Mullins, The Art of Georges Braque (also published as Braque, 1968); and Bernard Zurcher, Georges Braque: Life and Work (1988; originally published in French, 1988). An extensive catalog of his work is Nicole S. Mangin (Nicole Worms de Romilly) (ed.), Catalogue de l'oeuvre de Georges Braque, 7 vol. (1959–82). The artist's Cubist work is examined in William Rubin, Picasso and Braque: Pioneering Cubism (1989). His later work is explored in Herschel B. Chipp, Georges Braque: The Late Paintings, 1940–1963 (1982); and John Golding, Sophie Bowness, and Isabelle Monod-Fontaine, Braque: The Late Works (1997).
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