- Bramante, Donato
born 1444, probably at Monte Asdruvaldo, Duchy of Urbinodied April 11, 1514, RomeItalian architect and perspectivist painter.The son of a farmer, he was working as a painter by 1477. His early architectural works included the church of Santa Maria presso San Satiro (с 1480), in which the choir is painted in perspective to give an illusion of a much larger space. In 1499 he went to Rome, where he spent the rest of his life. His Tempietto was the first masterpiece of the High Renaissance. Under the patronage of Pope Julius II, he drew up plans for the immense Belvedere courtyard in the Vatican (begun с 1505) and the new St. Peter's Basilica (begun 1506), his greatest work. These ambitious projects were far from complete at the time of his death. Despite the grandiose scale of the St. Peter's undertaking, Bramante continued to work on other projects and played an important role in Julius II's plans for rebuilding Rome.Tempietto, S. Pietro in Montorio, Rome, designed by Bramante, 1502Anderson-Alinari from Art Resource/EB Inc.
* * *▪ Italian architectIntroductionDonato also spelled Donino or Donninoborn c. 1444, probably at Monte Asdrualdo, Duchy of Urbino [Italy]died April 11, 1514, Romearchitect who introduced the High Renaissance (Western architecture) style in architecture (Western architecture). His early works in Milan included the rectory of Sant'Ambrogio and the church of Santa Maria delle Grazie. In Rome (Italy), Bramante served as principal planner of Pope Julius II's comprehensive project for rebuilding the city. St. Peter's Basilica, of which he was the chief architect, was begun in 1506. Other major Roman works were the Tempietto at San Pietro in Montorio (1502) and the Belvedere court in the Vatican (begun c. 1505).Early years and trainingDonato Bramante was born of a family of well-to-do farmers. In his childhood, says the 16th-century biographer and artist Giorgio Vasari (Vasari, Giorgio), “besides reading and writing, he practiced much at the abacus.” His father probably directed him toward painting.Little is known of Bramante's life and works before 1477. He probably served as an assistant to Piero della Francesca in Urbino, which, under the nobleman Federico da Montefeltro (died 1482), had become a humanist (humanism) centre of considerable importance. In 1477 Bramante was working in Bergamo as a painter of illusionistic murals of architecture. He probably derived his training not only from the works of artists active in Urbino but also from those of other artists he may have observed in his travels, such as those of Leon Battista Alberti (Alberti, Leon Battista) (in Rimini and Mantua), Andrea Mantegna (Mantegna, Andrea) (in Mantua and Padua), Ercole de'Roberti (Roberti, Ercole de') (in Ferrara), and Filippo Brunelleschi (Brunelleschi, Filippo) (in Florence).None of Bramante's youthful productions has survived, though some historians attribute various architectural perspectives to him. Almost all of them show some characteristics of Bramante's work, but they appear very different from each other. Before 1477 Bramante may have been primarily a planner, designer, and painter of architectural perspectives that other artists partly modified and inserted into their own paintings or carried out in construction; there are a number of later instances in which he is known to have furnished painters with such architectural perspectives.Lombard periodBy 1477 Bramante had left Urbino for unknown reasons and settled in the northern Italian province of Lombardy. He worked on frescoes for the facade of the Palazzo del Podestà (later altered) in Bergamo showing Classical figures of philosophers in a complex architectural setting. Vasari (though poorly informed on this period) says that Bramante, after working in various cities on “things of no great cost and little value,” went to Milan “to see the cathedral.” The cathedral workshop, in which Italian, German, and French craftsmen worked by turns, constituted an important centre for the exchange of knowledge, planning methods, and techniques. Moreover, Milan was a large and wealthy metropolis, the capital of a state ruled by Ludovico Sforza (Sforza, Ludovico), called Il Moro, and Renaissance architecture was a commodity to be imported. Thus the city represented an opportunity for a young and up-to-date architect like Bramante.The first architectural work that can be definitely attributed to Bramante is a design: a print made in 1481 by a Milanese engraver, Bernardo Prevedari, from a Bramante drawing representing a ruined temple with human figures. About the same time, Bramante was working on the church of Santa Maria presso San Satiro, the first structure definitely attributed to him. Along with a certain adherence to local taste, this church shows traces of the influence of Alberti, Mantegna, Brunelleschi, and the Urbino school. This last influence is particularly evident in its choir, which was painted in perspective to give an illusion of a much larger space. Perhaps from the same period (c. 1480–85) is Bramante's decoration of a room in Casa Panigarola in Milan (fragments in the Brera, Milan) that consists of architectural settings and the figures of men at arms rendered by means of illusionistic perspective. Similar experiments, perhaps also in the same years, seem to have been carried out by Bramante on the facades of buildings, such as Casa Fontana, later called Silvestri, in Milan.In 1488 Bramante, along with a number of other architects, was asked by Cardinal Ascanio Sforza, brother of Ludovico Sforza and bishop of Pavia, to draw up a new plan for the cathedral of Pavia. Bramante went many times to that city during this period, and it was probably under his direction that the crypt and the lower portion of the building were executed.Bramante appears to have had close relations with Leonardo da Vinci. In 1482 Leonardo had visited Milan from Florence, and in 1490 both Bramante and Leonardo were occupied with stylistic and structural problems of the tiburio, or crossing tower, of the cathedral of Milan. From 1487 to 1490 a number of mutual exchanges can be documented. The only written evidence of Bramante's ideas on architecture goes back to this time (1490) and consists of a report on the tiburio problem. Bramante examined various solutions (among them one of his own, a square plan), demonstrating a conception of architecture remarkably like that of Alberti.Bramante by now enjoyed the favour of both Ludovico and Ascanio Sforza, as well as that of influential courtiers. His modest salary and the irregularity of payment, however, did not allow him to live luxuriously. He came in contact not only with artists but also with humanists and poets of the Sforza court, and he himself wrote verses. Like Leonardo, he was involved in the staging of spectacles at the Sforza court, such as one on the occasion of a baptism in 1492.Architecture increasingly dominated his interests, but he did not give up painting. Of the many works attributed to him by various 16th-century writers, however, none seems to have been preserved. The only extant easel picture that has ever been attributed to him is the Christ at the Column of the Abbey of Chiaravalle (c. 1490). A fresco in a complex architectural setting (c. 1490–92) in the Castello Sforzesco in Milan is probably his, with the collaboration of his pupil Il Bramantino (Bramantino).Starting in 1492, Bramante was entrusted by Ludovico and Ascanio Sforza with the reconstruction of the canonica (rectory) of Sant'Ambrogio (Sant'Ambrogio Basilica) in Milan. The work was interrupted by the fall of Ludovico, and, though it was resumed in the 16th century, only one side of the building was executed. Though Bramante's responsibility cannot be proved, the idea for the new tribuna (chancel) for Santa Maria delle Grazie probably originated with him; destined to be the burial mausoleum of the Sforzas, the tribuna was in an overall project of reconstruction, begun in 1492, for the entire church. Bramante also may have planned the painted decoration of the interior, but the execution and the clarification of details, particularly on the exterior, were probably done by Lombard masters.Bramante's activities in the 1490s, before he left Milan finally for Rome, are sporadically documented. It has been conjectured that in the summer of 1492 he was in Florence studying the work of Brunelleschi (Brunelleschi, Filippo), in view of the emphatic Brunelleschian character of the Sant'Ambrogio canonica. In 1493 he made a report on certain fortifications on the Swiss border for Ludovico.His last few years in Lombardy were marked by the restless activity that characterized the remainder of his career. He was probably responsible for the designs of the piazza of Vigevano (carried out between 1492 and 1494, partly transformed in the late 17th century), of the painted architectural decoration on the arcaded facades that marked its limits, and for the designs of other structures of the Vigevano complex, as well as the painted decoration (which has disappeared) for the interior of the castle of the same city. His covered passageway (ponticella) for the Castello Sforzesco (Sforzesco Castle) in Milan must also be from this period, and the facade of the church of Santa Maria Nascente ad Abbiategrasso (near Milan) dates from 1497. Between 1497 and 1498, in addition to a chapel (later altered) of Sant'Ambrogio in Milan, he worked on the Cistercian Monastery being erected in Milan under the auspices of Ascanio Sforza; like his work on the canonica, it was suspended in 1499 and is unfinished.Endowed with an extremely receptive character, Bramante was by no means immune to the influence of other artists active in Milan. He was also influenced by his study of Lombard monuments dating from the late ancient and Carolingian periods, the memory of which was to be useful to him in Rome. Conversely, Bramante's presence (together with Leonardo's) in Milan was of fundamental importance for the later artistic developments in that city.Roman periodBramante probably remained in Milan until Ludovico was forced to flee before the city was occupied by the French in September 1499. Bramante appears to have been active from the first in Rome on a variety of projects, such as a painting (now lost) at San Giovanni in Laterano celebrating the Holy Year 1500. As under-architect of Pope Alexander VI (Alexander VI), he probably executed the fountains in Piazza Santa Maria in Trastevere and in St. Peter's Square (later altered) and served on several architectural councils. It is probable that in these years he had reduced his activity as a designer and was devoting himself to the study of the ancient monuments in and around Rome, even ranging as far south as Naples. In the meantime, he had come in contact with Oliviero Carafa, the wealthy and politically influential cardinal of Naples, who had a deep interest in letters, the arts, and antiquity. Carafa commissioned the first work in Rome known to be by Bramante: the monastery and cloister of Santa Maria della Pace (finished 1504). Bramante seems to have been engaged in 1502 to begin the small church known as the Tempietto in San Pietro in Montorio, on the site where St. Peter was said to have been crucified.The election of Pope Julius II (Julius II) in October 1503 began a new phase in Bramante's work—the grand, or mature, manner. Almost immediately he entered the service of the new pope, one of the greatest patrons in art history. Bramante became the interpreter, in architecture and city planning, of the pontiff's dream of re-creating the ancient empire of the Caesars (renovatio imperii). Bramante planned gigantic building complexes that adhered as never before to the idiom of antiquity. At the same time, the buildings often represented an unbiased, personal, and contemporary interpretation of that idiom.Perhaps as early as 1505, Bramante designed the immense courtyard of the Belvedere, extending the nucleus of the older Vatican palaces (Vatican palace) to the north and connecting them with the pre-existing villa of Innocent VIII. Many aspects of the complex were conceived on Classical models; for example, the Doric, Ionic, Corinthian arrangement of orders (order) for the three-level lower terrace echoed the Colosseum's elevation, and the entire terraced complex was reminiscent of imperial palaces on the hills of ancient Rome. Though the work was carried forward with great speed, the scale was so large that on the death of Julius II, in 1513, and of Bramante himself, in 1514, it was still far from completion. The project, which continued throughout the 16th century and later, suffered so many changes that today Bramante's concept is almost unrecognizable.Beginning in 1505, at first in competition with two other architects, Giuliano da Sangallo and Fra Giocondo, Bramante planned the new Basilica of St. Peter (Saint Peter's Basilica) in Rome—his greatest work and one of the most ambitious building projects up to that date in the history of humankind. The first stone was placed on April 18, 1506 (after Bramante's first plan had been rejected by the pope, according to a contemporary). The project's site had to be cleared first of the old, crumbling Basilica of Constantine. Bramante's part in its demolition earned him the nicknames of “Maestro Ruinante” or “Maestro Guastante”—“Master Wrecker” or “Master Breaker.” At the time of his death the new construction had scarcely begun to take shape.Named general superintendent of all papal construction, a well-paid office, Bramante was not only the pope's principal architect and the engineer at the service of his military enterprises but also his personal friend. Concurrent with his work on the Belvedere and St. Peter's, Bramante presented Julius with a highly ambitious plan for the complete remodelling of the Vatican palaces, which was, however, set aside.Despite the grandiose scale of the St. Peter's undertaking, Bramante continued to work on lesser projects. Between 1505 and 1509 he carried out an enlargement of the choir of the church of Santa Maria del Popolo, some construction work in Castel Sant'Angelo, and a remodelling of the Rocca di Viterbo. In addition, in 1506, as a military engineer, he accompanied the pope to Bologna (where the grand staircase of the Palazzo degli Anziani has been attributed to him).About 1508, when Julius II's new city plan (urban planning) for Rome began to be put into effect, Bramante played an important role as architect and town planner. Within the framework of an organic plan, the Via Giulia (from the Ponte Sisto to the Vatican) was laid out with a large piazza that was to constitute a centre of activity for the city government; the Via della Lungara (from the Vatican across Trastevere to the river port installations of Ripa Grande) was begun; the Via dei Banchi, on which were erected the offices of the most important banks of the time, was widened at the entrance of the Ponte Sant'Angelo; and several streets in the old structure of the medieval city were modified. On the Via Giulia, Bramante designed a huge new Palazzo dei Tribunali (1508), incorporating the church of San Biagio (1509, also by Bramante). The structure is notable as a model for 16th-century architecture.Within the framework of Bramante's overall plan, the basin of the port was dug out, and a marine fortress was built at Civitavecchia. The west facade of the Vatican Palace (now the side of the San Damaso courtyard) was also constructed according to his design, though it was later taken up and completed by Raphael. About 1509 Bramante probably furnished a plan for the church of Roccaverano, whose facade anticipates certain solutions of the late 16th-century architect Andrea Palladio (Palladio, Andrea).Another noteworthy design was that of the Palazzo Caprini (House of Raphael; later destroyed) in the Borgo, which became the model for many 16th-century palaces. This palazzo was later acquired by Raphael. According to Vasari, Bramante, about 1509, had designed the architectural background for the School of Athens by Raphael (1508–11; Vatican, Rome), and in return, Raphael represented Bramante in the fresco in the guise of Euclid.After the death of Julius II, Bramante, though elderly and perhaps in declining health, remained in favour under Pope Leo X (Leo X). According to a late and uncertain source, in 1513 he presented to Leo X an audacious water-control plan for the city, designed to avoid the periodic floodings of the Tiber. At the end of 1513, however, when consulted about the cathedral of Foligno (San Feliciano), he was too ill to accept the commission and died the following year. He was buried in St. Peter's, carried there, according to Vasari, “by the papal court and by all the sculptors, architects, and painters.”Personality and interestsEven though he was called unlettered (as were Leonardo, Julius II, and others), probably because he was ignorant of Latin and Greek, Bramante must have acquired considerable learning, however fragmentary. His contemporaries esteemed him not only as an architect and painter and for his knowledge of perspective but also as a poet and an amateur musician. He had an almost fanatical interest in Dante. He also wrote some 20 sonnets on amorous, humorous, and religious themes, and, though somewhat crude in style, they are full of spirit.His theoretical writings, apart from his report on the tiburio of the Milan cathedral, have all been lost, but their subjects are indicative of his interests; e.g., works on perspective, on the “German manner” (i.e., on Gothic architecture), on fortification methods, and others.Bramante seems to have been an extravert. He was said to be very friendly to persons with talent, and he did much to help them. Humour, irony, a taste for intelligent jokes, and mockery of himself as well as others often appear in his sonnets. Full of faith in himself, he was an irreverent person who took pleasure in proposing paradoxical ideas. He was critical of priests and courtiers but also capable of deep religious feeling. In the treacherous atmosphere of courts, he was able to maneuver skillfully. He must have been highly ambitious and not overscrupulous when it came to securing an important commission. His biographers emphasize his impatience and speed in the conception and conduct of his work (Vasari calls him a “resolute, rapid, and excellent inventor”). This quality was combined with imaginative genius and an artful and lively curiosity. His insatiable thirst for experiment and for new knowledge forced him, as Bramante himself remarks in one of his sonnets, to “change himself” continually (“as time changes in a moment / my thought, its follower, changes too”). This trait of instability and inconstancy seems to have led him away from convention in his works to a multiplicity of attitudes and expressions.Arnaldo Bruschi Ed.Additional ReadingThe most important general biographical and critical publications with extensive bibliographies on the life and work of Bramante are Costantino Baroni, Bramante (1944), in Italian; Otto Forster, Bramante (1956), in German; Arnaldo Bruschi, Bramante architetto (1969), in Italian, and Bramante (1977; originally published in Italian, 1973); and Christiane Denker Nesselrath, Bramante's Spiral Staircase (1997). Surveys that include significant treatment of the architect include Henry Millon and Vittorio Magnago Lampugnani (eds.), The Renaissance from Brunelleschi to Michelangelo: The Representation of Architecture (1994), a collection of essays by well-known scholars; Wolfgang Lotz, Architecture in Italy, 1500–1600 (1995), with an introduction by Deborah Howard; and Laurie Schneider Adams, Italian Renaissance Art (2001), which includes several chapters that focus on Bramante.
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