Bloom, Harold

Bloom, Harold
born July 11, 1930, New York, N.Y., U.S.

U.S. literary critic.

Bloom studied at Cornell and Yale universities and taught at Yale from 1955. In The Anxiety of Influence (1973) and A Map of Misreading (1975) he suggested that poetry results from poets deliberately misreading the works that both influence and threaten them. In The Book of J (1990) he speculated that the earliest known biblical texts were written by a woman with principally literary intentions. His best-selling The Western Canon (1994) identifies 26 canonical Western writers and argues against the politicization of literary study.

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▪ American literary critic and author
born July 11, 1930, New York City, New York, U.S.

      American literary critic known for his innovative interpretations of literary history and of the creation of literature.

      Bloom's first language was Yiddish, and he also learned Hebrew before English. He attended Cornell (B.A., 1951) and Yale (Ph.D., 1955) universities and began teaching at Yale in 1955; from 1988 he also taught at New York University. As a young man, he was much influenced by Northrop Frye (Frye, Northrop)'s Fearful Symmetry (1947), a study of William Blake, and he later stated that he considered Frye “certainly the largest and most crucial literary critic in the English language” since Walter Pater (Pater, Walter) and Oscar Wilde (Wilde, Oscar). Bloom's own early books, Shelley's Mythmaking (1959, reissued 1969), The Visionary Company: A Reading of English Romantic Poetry (1961, rev. and enlarged ed., 1971), and The Ringers in the Tower: Studies in Romantic Tradition (1971), were creative studies of the Romantic poets and their work, then out of fashion. He examined the Romantic tradition from its beginnings in the 18th century to its influence on such late 20th-century poets as A.R. Ammons (Ammons, A.R.) and Allen Ginsberg (Ginsberg, Allen), quickly making a name for himself with his individual and challenging views.

      With the publication of Yeats (1970), Bloom began to extend his critical theory, and in The Anxiety of Influence (1973) and A Map of Misreading (1975), he systematized one of his most original theories: that poetry results from poets deliberately misreading the works that influence them. Figures of Capable Imagination (1976) and several other works of the next decade develop and illustrate this theme.

      One of Bloom's most controversial popular works appeared in his commentary on The Book of J (1990), published with David Rosenberg's translations of selected sections of the Pentateuch. In it, Bloom speculated that the earliest known texts of the Bible were written by a woman who lived during the time of David and Solomon and that the texts are literary rather than religious ones, on which later rewriters imposed beliefs of patriarchal Judaism. This work was one of a number of his books—including Kabbalah and Criticism (1975), The American Religions (1992), Omens of Millennium (1996), and his novel The Flight to Lucifer (1979)—to deal with religious subjects.

      Perhaps Bloom's greatest legacy is his passion for poetry and literature of other types too. This is reflected in his best-known work, The Western Canon: The Books and School of the Ages (1994), which rejects the multiculturalism prevalent in late 20th-century academia. He once said of multiculturalism that “it means fifth-rate work by people full of resentment.” In an interview published in 1995, Bloom reflected on the great authors of the Western world, stating,

We have to read Shakespeare, and we have to study Shakespeare. We have to study Dante. We have to read Chaucer. We have to read Cervantes. We have to read the Bible, at least the King James Bible. We have to read certain authors.…They provide an intellectual, I dare say, a spiritual value which has nothing to do with organized religion or the history of institutional belief. They remind us in every sense of re-minding us. They not only tell us things that we have forgotten, but they tell us things we couldn't possibly know without them, and they reform our minds. They make our minds stronger. They make us more vital.

      In the mid-1980s Bloom began to work with Chelsea House Publishers to “chronicle all of Western literature.” By 2005 he had edited more than 600 volumes. Series titles include Bloom's BioCritiques on individual authors, presented in a format that includes an extensive biography and critical analyses; Bloom's Guides, on individual literary masterpieces; Bloom's Literary Places, guides to such cities as London, Dublin, and Paris; Bloom's Major Literary Characters; Bloom's Modern Critical Interpretations, on major works; Bloom's Modern Critical Views, on major writers; and Bloom's Period Studies.

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Universalium. 2010.

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  • BLOOM, HAROLD — (1930– ), U.S. literary critic. Born to Yiddish speaking parents in New York City, Bloom taught at Yale from 1955. An authority on Romantic and Victorian poetry, he wrote lengthy studies of Shelley, Blake, and Yeats. Bloom s most significant… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Bloom,Harold — Bloom (blo͞om), Harold. Born 1930. American literary theorist and scholar whose works include The Anxiety of Influence (1972). * * * …   Universalium

  • Bloom, Harold — (b. 1930)    American educator, editor and literary critic. Bloom was born in New York. He was educated at Cornell and Yale Universities and he now teaches at Yale. He is a prolific editor among whose many works include the 33 volume anthology,… …   Who’s Who in Jewish History after the period of the Old Testament

  • Bloom, Harold — (n. 11 jul. 1930, Nueva York, N.Y., EE.UU.). Crítico literario estadounidense. Bloom estudió en las universidades de Cornell y Yale, y enseñó en esta última a partir de 1955. En sus obras La angustia de las influencias (1973) y A Map of… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Bloom, Harold — (b. 1930)    American literary critic and editor. He was born in New York and taught at Yale. In his literary work he has been influ enced by the kabbalah and by Martin Buber. His publications include Kabbalah and Criticism, Poetry and Repression …   Dictionary of Jewish Biography

  • Harold Bloom — Nacimiento 11 de julio de 1930 …   Wikipedia Español

  • Harold Bloom — (* 11. Juli 1930 in New York City) ist ein amerikanischer Literaturwissenschaftler und kritiker. Er ist vor allem für seine Ablehnung marxistischer, feministischer und postkolonialer Literaturtheorie bekannt und erlangte im Laufe der in den… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Harold Jack Bloom — Infobox Actor name = Harold Jack Bloom imagesize = caption = birthname = birthdate = birth date|1924|4|26|mf=y birthplace = deathdate = death date and age|1999|8|27|1924|4|24|mf=y deathplace = Los Angeles, California othername = Harold Bloom… …   Wikipedia

  • Harold Bloom — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Bloom. Harold Bloom (né en 11 juillet 1930 à New York) est un critique littéraire et un professeur américain. Il a notamment défendu les poètes du XIXe siècle à une époque où ils étaient méconnus.… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Harold — /har euhld/, n. a male given name. * * * (as used in expressions) Alexander Harold Rupert Leofric George Alexander 1st Earl Arlen Harold Barton Sir Derek Harold Richard Bloom Harold Clurman Harold Edgar Crane Harold Hart James Harold Doolittle… …   Universalium

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