Binet, Alfred

Binet, Alfred
born July 8, 1857, Nice, France
died Oct. 18, 1911, Paris

French psychologist.

His interest in Jean-Martin Charcot's work on hypnosis prompted him to abandon a law career and study medicine at the Salpêtrière Hospital in Paris (1878–91). He served as director of a research laboratory at the Sorbonne (1895–1911). A major figure in the development of experimental psychology in France, he founded L'Année Psychologique, the first French journal on psychology, in 1895. He developed experimental techniques to measure reasoning ability; between 1905 and 1911 he and Theodore Simon developed influential scales for the measurement of intelligence of children. His works include Experimental Study of Intelligence (1903) and A Method of Measuring the Development of the Intelligence of Young Children (1915).

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▪ French psychologist
born July 8, 1857, Nice, France
died October 18, 1911, Paris

      French psychologist who played a dominant role in the development of experimental psychology in France and who made fundamental contributions to the measurement of intelligence.

      Fascinated by the work of the neurologist Jean-Martin Charcot (Charcot, Jean-Martin) on hypnosis at the Salpêtrière Hospital, Paris, Binet abandoned a law career in 1878 to devote himself to medico-scientific studies at the hospital, at which he remained until 1891. He then became associated with a research laboratory at the Sorbonne (1891) and served as its director from 1895 to 1911. Seeing little value in German laboratory research of sensation and perception, he sought to develop experimental techniques to measure reasoning (measurement) ability and other higher mental processes, devising techniques using paper, pencil, pictures, and portable objects. In 1895 he founded L'Année psychologique, the first French journal devoted to psychology. About the same time, he opened a Paris laboratory for child study and experimental teaching.

      Impressed by the attempt of the English psychologist Sir Francis Galton (Galton, Sir Francis) to record individual differences by means of standardized tests, Binet adapted the method to studies of eminent writers, artists, mathematicians, and chess players, often supplementing the more formal tests (psychological testing) with observations on body type, handwriting, and other characteristics. L'Étude expérimentale de l'intelligence (1903; “Experimental Study of Intelligence”) is an investigation of the mental characteristics of his two daughters, which he developed into a systematic study of two contrasted types of personalities. Between 1905 and 1911 he and Théodore Simon developed highly influential scales for the measurement of intelligence of children. Binet also published works on suggestibility (1900) and hysteria (1910) and was working on a revision of his scales at the time of his death.

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