Bharatpur

Bharatpur
or Bhurtpore

City (pop., 2001 prelim.: 204,456), Rajasthan state, northwestern India.

Located west of Agra, it was founded с 1733 and was the capital of the princely state of Bharatpur. It was so strongly fortified that it successfully resisted the British siege in 1805, and it was not taken by them until 1826. The city is renowned for the superb bird sanctuary at nearby Keoladeo National Park.

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India
also called  Bhurtpore 

      city, eastern Rajasthan (Rājasthān) state, northwestern India. It lies about 35 miles (55 km) west of Agra. The city, which was the capital of the former princely state of Bharatpur, was founded about 1733. A communications centre connected by road and rail with Jaipur, Agra, and Mathura, Bharatpur is also an important industrial and agricultural market centre. Its major industries include oil mills, metal-fabricating factories, railway workshops, and small-car factories. Bharatpur's handcrafted chowries (fly whisks), which have handles made of ivory, silver, or sandalwood, are famous. Bajra (pearl millet), gram (chickpeas), barley, wheat, and oilseeds are the chief crops. The city has several hospitals and two colleges affiliated with the University of Rajasthan. Nearby Keoladeo National Park is a bird sanctuary renowned for its flocks of wintering migrant species, including the rare Siberian crane; the park was declared a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1985.

      Bharatpur is situated on an immense alluvial plain with isolated hilly areas in the north and south. The locality composes most of the former princely state of Bharatpur, which was established in the 18th century. In 1949 it became part of the state of Rajasthan. Pop. (2001) city, 204,587.

▪ historical state, India
      former state of India. Situated in eastern Rajputana (Rājputāna), lying to the south of Delhi and bordering on the Mathura and Agra districts of British India, it was ruled by Hindu princes of the Jat clan or caste. In the 19th and 20th centuries its area was nearly 2,000 square miles (5,200 square km), and its population was less than one million. The dominant castes were the Jats, who were sturdy cultivators, and the Brahmans (Brahman). The country was agricultural.

      In pre-Muslim times the area was divided between two Rajput clans, the Tomaras of Delhi and the Jadons of Bayana. Thereafter it was directly under Delhi. Jat independence began toward the end of the reign of the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb (1659–1707), with plundering raids and the establishment of robber forts. In 1722 Bharatpur was recognized by the Mughals as autonomous. Its greatest ruler, Suraj Mal, plundered Delhi (1753) and took Agra (1761). Soon after his death (1763) the state declined, undergoing two sieges by the British. In 1804 the Jats sided with the Maratha chief Malhar Rao Holkar and successfully resisted a siege from January to February 1805. In 1825 a claimant to the throne, Durjan Sal, seized Bharatpur and defied the British again. This time it was captured by Lord Combermere (1826). After Indian independence (1947) Bharatpur was absorbed into the state of Rajasthan (Rājasthān).

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Universalium. 2010.

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