born с 1502
died Aug. 29, 1533, Cajamarca, Inca empire

Last free-reigning emperor of the Incas.

He became ruler after defeating his half brother in what may have been the greatest military engagement in Inca history. The conquistador Francisco Pizarro met Atahuallpa just before the emperor's triumphal entry into Cuzco and invited him to a feast in his honour. When Atahuallpa and his unarmed retainers arrived, Pizarro ambushed them on horseback with cannons and guns, slaughtered thousands, and took Atahuallpa prisoner. Pizarro accepted Atahuallpa's offer of a ransom of a roomful of gold; then, having received 24 tons of gold and silver, he ordered Atahuallpa burned at the stake. The sentence was changed to death by garrote when Atahuallpa agreed to convert to Christianity.

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▪ emperor of the Incas
also spelled  Atahualpa  
born c. 1502
died August 29, 1533, Cajamarca, Inca empire [now in Peru]

      13th and last emperor of the Inca, who was victorious in a devastating civil war with his half brother, only to be captured, held for ransom, and then executed by Francisco Pizarro.

      Atahuallpa was a younger son of the Inca ruler Huayna Capac and an Ecuadoran princess; although not the legitimate heir, he seems to have been his father's favourite. When the old Inca chief died (c. 1527), the kingdom was divided between Atahuallpa, who ruled the northern part of the empire from Quito, and Huáscar (Huascar), the legitimate heir, who ruled from Cuzco, the traditional Inca capital.

      Depicted by contemporary chroniclers as brave, ambitious, and extremely popular with the army, Atahuallpa was soon embroiled in a civil war with his older half brother for control of the empire. The war ravaged Inca cities, wreaked havoc on the economy, and decimated the population. Early in 1532, near Cuzco, Atahuallpa's army defeated the army of Huáscar in what was perhaps the greatest military engagement in Inca history. Huáscar and his family were captured and later executed under Atahuallpa's orders.

      While Atahuallpa was enjoying the hot springs near the small Inca town of Cajamarca, preparatory to entering Cuzco in triumph, Francisco Pizarro (Pizarro, Francisco) entered the city with a force of about 180 men. On November 15, 1532, Pizarro and Atahuallpa met in what was to prove one of the most fateful encounters in the New World. Invited by the Spaniard to attend a feast in his honour, the Inca chief accepted. The next day, he arrived at the appointed meeting place with several thousand unarmed retainers; Pizarro, prompted by the example of Hernán Cortés and Montezuma in Mexico, had prepared an ambush.

      Atahuallpa rejected demands by the friar Vicente de Valverde, who had accompanied Pizarro, that he accept the Christian faith and the sovereignty of Charles V of Spain, whereupon Pizarro signaled his men. Firing their cannons and guns and charging with their horses (all of which were unknown to the Inca), the conquistadores captured Atahuallpa and slaughtered thousands of his men. Perceiving the avarice of his captors, Atahuallpa offered to fill a room with gold as a ransom for his release. Pizarro accepted the offer, and from throughout the empire the Incas brought gold and silver statues, jewelry, and art objects. The Spaniards had the Indians melt it all down into bullion and ingots, accumulating 24 tons of gold and silver, the richest ransom ever received. Once the full amount was acquired, the conquistadores ordered Atahuallpa burned to death.

      When Atahuallpa was at the stake, de Valverde offered him the choice of being burned alive or dying by the more merciful garrote if he became a Christian. Atahuallpa, who had resisted proselytization throughout his captivity, agreed to the conversion and so died that day by strangulation. The execution of Atahuallpa, the last free reigning emperor, marked the end of the Inca empire.

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Universalium. 2010.

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