- Albanian language
Indo-European language spoken by five to six million people in Albania, Kosovo in Serbia and Montenegro, western Macedonia, and enclaves elsewhere, including southern Italy and southern Greece.There are two main dialect groups, Gheg (Geg) in the north, including Kosovo and Macedonia, and Tosk in the south. Albanian is the only extant representative of a distinct branch of Indo-European, whose pre-Roman Balkan ancestry is uncertain. The earliest written attestation is from the 15th century, though a standard orthography using the Latin alphabet was not adopted until 1909. The core vocabulary of Albanian is native, though in the course of its history it has absorbed many loanwords from Greek, Latin, Balkan Romance languages (see Romanian), Slavic languages, and Turkish.
* * *IntroductionIndo-European language spoken in Albania and by smaller numbers of ethnic Albanians in other parts of the southern Balkans, along the east coast of Italy and in Sicily, in southern Greece, and in Germany, Sweden, the United States, Ukraine, and Belgium. Albanian is the only modern representative of a distinct branch of the Indo-European language family.The origins of the general name Albanian, which traditionally referred to a restricted area in central Albania, and of the current official name Shqip or Shqipëri, which may well be derived from a term meaning “pronounce clearly, intelligibly,” are still disputed. The name Albanian has been found in records since the time of Ptolemy. In Calabrian Albanian the name is Arbresh, in Modern Greek Arvanítis, and in Turkish Arnaut; the name must have been transmitted early through Greek speech.DialectsThe two principal dialects, Gheg in the north and Tosk in the south, are separated roughly by the Shkumbin River. Gheg and Tosk have been diverging for at least a millennium, and their less extreme forms are mutually intelligible. Gheg has the more marked subvarieties, the most striking of which are the northernmost and eastern types, which include those of the city of Shkodër (Scutari), the northeastern Skopska Crna Gora region of Macedonia, Kosovo, and the isolated village of Arbanasi (outside Zadar) on the Croatian coast of Dalmatia. Arbanasi, founded in the early 18th century by refugees from the region around the Montenegrin coastal city of Bar, has about 2,000 speakers.All of the Albanian dialects spoken in Italian and Greek enclaves are of the Tosk variety and seem to be related most closely to the dialect of Çamëria in the extreme south of Albania. These dialects resulted from incompletely understood population movements of the 13th and 15th centuries. The Italian enclaves—nearly 50 scattered villages—probably were founded by emigrants from Turkish rule in Greece. A few isolated outlying dialects of south Tosk origin are spoken in Bulgaria and Turkish Thrace but are of unclear date. The language is still in use in Mandritsa, Bulgaria, at the border near Edirne, and in an offshoot of this village surviving in Mándres, near Kilkís in Greece, that dates from the Balkan Wars. A Tosk enclave near Melitopol in Ukraine appears to be of moderately recent settlement from Bulgaria. The Albanian dialects of Istria, for which a text exists, and of Syrmia (Srem), for which there is none, have become extinct.HistoryThe official language, written in a standard roman-style orthography adopted in 1909, was based on the south Gheg dialect of Elbasan from the beginning of the Albanian state until World War II and since has been modelled on Tosk. Albanian speakers in Kosovo and in Macedonia speak eastern varieties of Gheg but since 1974 have widely adopted a common orthography with Albania. Before 1909 the little literature that was preserved was written in local makeshift Italianate or Hellenizing orthographies or even in Turko-Arabic characters.A few brief written records are preserved from the 15th century, the first being a baptismal formula from 1462. The scattering of books produced in the 16th and 17th centuries originated largely in the Gheg area (often in Scutarene north Gheg) and reflect Roman Catholic missionary activities. Much of the small stream of literature in the 19th century was produced by exiles. Perhaps the earliest purely literary work of any extent is the 18th-century poetry of Gjul Variboba, of the enclave at S. Giorgio, in Calabria. Some literary production continued through the 19th century in the Italian enclaves, but no similar activity is recorded in the Greek areas. All these early historical documents show a language that differs little from the current language. Because these documents from different regions and times exhibit marked dialect peculiarities, however, they often have a value for linguistic study that greatly outweighs their literary merit.ClassificationThat Albanian is of clearly Indo-European origin was recognized by the German philologist Franz Bopp in 1854; the details of the main correspondences of Albanian with Indo-European languages were elaborated by another German philologist, Gustav Meyer, in the 1880s and '90s. Further linguistic refinements were presented by the Danish linguist Holger Pedersen and the Austrian Norbert Jokl. The following etymologies illustrate the relationship of Albanian to Indo-European (an asterisk preceding a word denotes an unattested, hypothetical Indo-European parent word, which is written in a conventionalized orthography): pesë “five” (from *pénkwe); zjarm “fire” (from *gwhermos); natë “night” (from *nokwt-); dhëndër “son-in-law” (from *ǵemə ter-); gjarpër “snake” (from *sérpō˘n-); bjer “bring!” (from *bhere); djeg “I burn” (from *dhegwhō); kam “I have” (from *kapmi); pata “I had” (from *pot-); pjek “I roast” (from *pekwō); thom, thotë “I say, he says” (from *k'ēmi, *k'ēt . . .).The verb system includes many archaic traits, such as the retention of distinct active and middle personal endings (as in Greek) and the change of a stem vowel e in the present to o (from *ē) in the past tense, a feature shared with the Baltic languages. For example, there is mbledh “gathers (transitive)” as well as mblidhet “gathers (intransitive), is gathered” in the present tense, and mblodha “I gathered” with an o in the past. Because of the superficial changes in the phonetic shape of the language over 2,000 years and because of the borrowing of words from neighbouring cultures, the continuity of the Indo-European heritage in Albanian has been underrated.Albanian shows no obvious close affinity to any other Indo-European language; it is plainly the sole modern survivor of its own subgroup. It seems likely, however, that in very early times the Balto-Slavic group was its nearest of kin. Of ancient languages, both Dacian (or Daco-Mysian) and Illyrian have been tentatively considered its ancestor or nearest relative.GrammarThe grammatical categories of Albanian are much like those of other European languages. Nouns show overt gender, number, and three or four cases. An unusual feature is that nouns are further inflected obligatorily with suffixes to show definite or indefinite meaning: e.g., bukë “bread,” buka “the bread.” Adjectives—except numerals and certain quantifying expressions—and dependent nouns follow the noun they modify; and they are remarkable in requiring a particle preceding them that agrees with the noun. Thus, in një burrë i madh, meaning “a big man,” burrë “man” is modified by madh “big,” which is preceded by i, which agrees with the term for “man”; likewise, in dy burra të mëdhenj “two big men,” mëdhenj, the plural masculine form for “big,” follows the noun burra “men” and is preceded by a particle të that agrees with the noun. Verbs have roughly the number and variety of forms found in French or Italian and are quite irregular in forming their stems. Noun plurals are also notable for the irregularity of a large number of them. When a definite noun or one taken as already known is the direct object of the sentence, a pronoun in the objective case that repeats this information must also be inserted in the verb phrase; e.g., i-a dhashë librin atij is literally “him-it I-gave the-book to-him,” which in standard English would be “I gave the book to him.” In general, the grammar and formal distinctions of Albanian are reminiscent of Modern Greek and the Romance languages, especially of Romanian. The sounds suggest Hungarian or Greek, but Gheg with its nasal vowels strikes the ear as distinctive.Vocabulary and contactsAlthough Albanian has a host of borrowings from its neighbours, it shows exceedingly few evidences of contact with ancient Greek; one such is the Gheg mokën (Tosk mokër) “millstone,” from the Greek mēkhanē´. Obviously close contacts with the Romans gave many Latin (Latin language) loans—e.g., mik “friend” from Latin amicus; këndoj “sing, read” from cantāre. Furthermore, such loanwords in Albanian attest to the similarities in development of the Latin spoken in the Balkans and of Romanian (Romanian language), a Balkan Romance tongue. For example, Latin palūdem “swamp” became padūlem and then pădure in Romanian and pyll in Albanian, both with a modified meaning, “forest.”Conversely, Romanian also shares some apparently non-Latin indigenous terms with Albanian—e.g., Romanian brad, Albanian bredh “fir.” Thus these two languages reflect special historical contacts of early date. Early communication with the Goths presumably contributed tirq “trousers, breeches” (from an old compound “thigh-breech”), while early Slavic contacts gave gozhdë “nail.” Many Italian, Turkish, Modern Greek, Serbian, and Macedonian-Slav loans can be attributed to cultural contacts of the past 500 years with Venetians, Ottomans, Greeks (to the south), and Slavs (to the east).A fair number of features—e.g., the formation of the future tense and of the noun phrase—are shared with other languages of the Balkans but are of obscure origin and development; Albanian or its earlier kin could easily be the source for at least some of these. The study of such regional features in the Balkans has become a classic case for research on the phenomena of linguistic diffusion.Eric P. HampAdditional ReadingP.L. Horecky (ed.), Southeastern Europe: A Guide to Basic Publications, pp. 102–111 (1969), including a compilation by E.P. Hamp of about 50 major annotated items on Albanian scholarship, language, literature, folklore, ethnography, and folk music, with references to other supporting work; E.P. Hamp, “Albanian,” in Thomas A. Sebeok (ed.), Current Trends in Linguistics, vol. 9 (1972), pp. 1626–92, a review of work since 1918, with copious bibliography; Leonard Newmark, P. Hubbard, and Peter Prifti, Standard Albanian (1982), a reference grammar.Eric P. Hamp
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