Akal Takht

Akal Takht
Chief centre of religious authority for Indian Sikhs, located in Amritsar opposite the Golden Temple.

It also serves as the headquarters of the Akali Party. Since the line of Gurus came to an end in 1708, the Sikh community has settled religious and political disputes at meetings in front of the Akal Takht. In the 20th century local congregations began to pass resolutions on matters of Sikh doctrine and rules of conduct; disputed resolutions may be appealed to the Akal Takht. It was badly damaged during the assault on the Golden Temple by the Indian army in 1984 and had to be rebuilt. See also Sikhism.

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▪ religious site, Amritsar, India
      (Punjabi: “Throne of the Timeless One”), the chief centre of religious authority for the Sikh community of India. The Akāl Takht is located at the city of Amritsar (Punjab state), opposite the Harimandir, or Golden Temple, the principal Sikh house of worship; it is also the headquarters of the Shiromanī Akālī Dal (“Leading Akālī Party”), predominant among the Sikhs. Similar seats of authority are located at Anandpur and Patiāla (Punjab), Patna (Bihār), and Nānded (Mahārāshtra). The Akāl Takht was badly damaged during the assault on the Golden Temple by the Indian army in June 1984.

      When in 1708 Gurū Gobind Singh declared that the line of personal Gurūs (religious guides) had come to an end, the authority of the office of Gurū was considered to be embodied in the holy scriptures, the Ādi Granth. Disputes in interpretation had to be settled by the entire Sikh community. Decisions were made at annual or semiannual meetings in Amritsar, when groups would assemble behind their elected leaders in the open area in front of the Akāl Takht. Resolutions had to be carried unanimously; they then became gurmatas (decisions of the Gurū) and were binding on all Sikhs. Both political and religious decisions were taken at Akāl Takht meetings up until 1809, when Maharaja Ranjit Singh, the leader of the newly unified Sikh state, abolished political gurmatas and began to seek counsel from both Sikhs and non-Sikhs. In the 20th century, resolutions of local congregations on nonpolitical matters relating to the interpretation of Sikh doctrine or rules of conduct can be appealed to the Akāl Takht; decisions taken there are conveyed in the form of hukamnāmās (orders). A hukamnāmā issued from the Akāl Takht is considered mandatory for all Sikhs.

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