- Agricola, Gnaeus Julius
born June 13, AD 40, Forum Julii, Gallia Narbonensisdied Aug. 23, 93Roman general.After Agricola served as tribune and quaestor in Britain and Asia, Vespasian appointed him governor of Britain (77/78–84). In that role he conquered parts of Wales and northern England, then advanced into Scotland and set a frontier between the Firths of Clyde and Forth. In 83 he crossed the Forth and defeated the Caledonians at Mons Graupius; he then occupied Scotland to the fringe of the Highlands, with forts at the main passes and a fortress at Inchtuthil. Recalled to Rome, Agricola was offered the proconsulship of Asia but chose retirement. His life is known through the writings of his son-in-law Tacitus.
* * *▪ Roman generalborn June 13, AD 40, Forum Julii, Gallia Narbonensisdied Aug. 23, 93Roman general celebrated for his conquests in Britain. His life is set forth by his son-in-law, the historian Tacitus.After serving as military tribune under Suetonius Paulinus, governor in Britain (59–61), Agricola became, successively, quaestor in Asia (64), people's tribune (66), and praetor (68). In the civil war of 69 he took the side of Vespasian, who appointed him to a command in Britain. He was granted patrician status upon his return to Rome in 73 and served as governor of Aquitania (74–77). Appointed consul in 77, he was made governor of Britain.Agricola was in Britain from 77/78 to 84. After conquering portions of Wales, including the island of Mona (now Anglesey), he completed the conquest of what is now northern England. By the end of the third campaigning season, he had advanced into Scotland, establishing a temporary frontier of posts between the firths of the Clota and Bodotria (Clyde and Forth) rivers. The Romans crossed the Forth in 83 and defeated the Caledonians in a decisive battle at Mons Graupius. Agricola's permanent occupation of Scotland reached the fringe of the highlands, where he blocked the main passes with forts and placed a legionary fortress at Inchtuthil (near Dunkeld in Perthshire). Recalled to Rome after his victory, the general lived in retirement, refusing the proconsulship of Asia.
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