/zemst"voh/; Russ. /zyem"stveuh/, n., pl. zemstvos /zemst"vohz/. Russ. Hist.
one of a system of elected local assemblies established in 1864 by Alexander II to replace the authority of the nobles in administering local affairs after the abolition of serfdom: became the core of the liberal movement from 1905 to 1917.
[1860-65; < Russ zémstvo, deriv. of zemlyá land, earth; see HUMUS]

* * *

plural zemstvos

Rural elected assembly in the Russian Empire.

Established by Tsar Alexander II in 1864 to provide social and economic services, the zemstvos became a liberal influence in imperial Russia. The assemblies, formed at the district and province levels, were composed of delegates representing the landed proprietors and the peasant village communes. They expanded education, improved roads, and provided health care. From the 1890s they agitated for constitutional reform, and they stimulated activity in the Russian Revolutions of 1905 and 1917 (see Russian Revolution of 1905; Russian Revolution of 1917). They were abolished after the Bolsheviks came to power. The term zemstvo also refers to a 16th-century institution for tax collection.

* * *

▪ Russian government
      organ of rural self-government in the Russian Empire and Ukraine; established in 1864 to provide social and economic services, it became a significant liberal influence within imperial Russia. Zemstvos existed on two levels, the uyezd (canton) and the province; the uyezd assemblies, composed of delegates representing the individual landed proprietors and the peasant village communes, elected the provincial assemblies. Each assembly appointed an executive board and hired professional experts to carry out its functions.

      Generally dominated by the nobility, the zemstvos suffered after 1890 from legislation that restricted their authority, from insufficient revenue, and from administrative controls of a hostile bureaucracy. Nevertheless, they expanded the network of elementary schools, constructed roads, provided health care, and instructed the peasantry in agricultural techniques. From the late 1890s onward they also agitated for constitutional reform and, through a union organized by the zemstvos and their professional employees, stimulated revolutionary activity in 1904–05 and 1917. Reorganized on a democratic basis in 1917, the zemstvos were abolished after the Bolshevik party came to power later that year.

      The term zemstvo also referred to a 16th-century institution for tax collection.

* * *

Universalium. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Нужно решить контрольную?

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Zemstvo — (Ruso: Земство) fue una forma de gobierno local instituido durante las grandes reformas liberales realizadas en el Imperio ruso por el zar Alejandro II de Rusia. La idea de este sistema fue desarrollada por Nikolay Milyutin. Las primeras leyes… …   Wikipedia Español

  • Zemstvo — (Russian: Земство) was a form of local government instituted during the great liberal reforms performed in Imperial Russia by Alexander II of Russia. The idea of zemstvo was elaborated by Nikolay Milyutin, and the first zemstvo laws were… …   Wikipedia

  • Zemstvo — em stvo, n. [Russ., fr. zemlya land.] In Russia, an elective local district and provincial administrative assembly. Originally it was composed of representatives elected by the peasantry, the householders of the towns, and the landed proprietors …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • zemstvo — ● zemstvo nom masculin (mot russe) Assemblée territoriale assurant l administration locale dans les gouvernements de la Russie d Europe (1864 1917). zemstvo [zɛmstvo] n. m. ÉTYM. 1888; mot russe, de zemlia « terre ». ❖ ♦ Hist. Assemblée… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • zemstvo — zémstvo sr <G mn zȇmstāvā/ ā> DEFINICIJA pov. u carskoj Rusiji od druge pol. 19. st. skupština u kojoj je predstavnike imalo plemstvo, građanstvo i seljaštvo ETIMOLOGIJA rus. zémstvo …   Hrvatski jezični portal

  • zemstvo — [zemst′vō΄] n. pl. zemstvos [zemst′vōz΄] or zemstva [zemst′və] [Russ < zemlya, earth < IE base * g̑hthem > HOMO1] a local administrative body in czarist Russia …   English World dictionary

  • Zemstvo — Un zemstvo (en russe : Земство, prononciation : [zĕmst vō], pluriel : zemstva ou zemtsvos) est un type d assemblée provinciale de la Russie impériale créé en 1864. Ces assemblées, élues avec un suffrage censitaire (il fallait… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • zemstvo — is. <rus.> tar. İnqilabdan qabaqkı Rusiyada: tərkibi əsasən zadəganburjua nümayəndələrindən ibarət olan məhdud hüquqlu yerli idarə. Zemstvo idarələri. Zemstvo yığıncağı. Zemstvo hakimi. – Sonra müəllim, zemstvo və hökumət məktəblərinə… …   Azərbaycan dilinin izahlı lüğəti

  • Zemstvo — Der Landtag (Zemstvo) speist von Grigorij Mjassojedow, 1872 Semstwo oder auch Zemstvo (russisch Земство) bedeutet Landstand oder Landschaftsvertretung und bezeichnet lokale Selbstverwaltungseinheiten auf Kreis und …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • zemstvo — plural zemstvos Asamblea rural en el Imperio ruso. Establecidas por el zar Alejandro II en 1864 para proporcionar servicios sociales y económicos, los zemstvos se convirtieron en una influencia liberal en la Rusia imperial. Las asambleas,… …   Enciclopedia Universal

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”