/yawrk/, n.
1. a member of the royal house of England that ruled from 1461 to 1485.
2. 1st Duke of (Edmund of Langley), 1341-1402, progenitor of the house of York (son of Edward III).
3. Alvin Cullum /kul"euhm/ (Sergeant), 1887-1964, U.S. soldier.
4. Yorkshire (def. 1).
5. Ancient, Eboracum. a city in North Yorkshire, in NE England, on the Ouse: the capital of Roman Britain; cathedral. 102,700.
6. a city in SE Pennsylvania: meeting of the Continental Congress 1777-78. 44,619.
7. an estuary in E Virginia, flowing SE into Chesapeake Bay. 40 mi. (64 km) long.
8. Cape, a cape at the NE extremity of Australia.

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City (pop., 2001: 150,255), southeastern Ontario, Canada.

With the cities of Toronto, Etobicoke, Scarborough, and North York and the borough of East York, it forms part of the municipality of Metropolitan Toronto. Occupying an area of 9 sq mi (23 sq km), York was established in 1967 through the amalgamation of the former township of York and the town of Weston. The original York township was formed in 1793.

City and unitary authority (pop., 2001: 181,131), geographic county of North Yorkshire, historic county of Yorkshire, England.

Located at the confluence of the Ouse and Foss rivers, it is the cathedral city of the archbishop of York and was historically the ecclesiastical capital of northern England. It was also the seat of the historic county of Yorkshire. York was a Celtic and then a Roman settlement. Constantine I was proclaimed Roman emperor in York in AD 306. It was conquered by the Danes in 867. York suffered severely in the Norman conquest of northern England in the 11th century. During the Middle Ages it was a prosperous wool-trading town and the performance site of the York plays. It has a manufacturing economy and a tourist industry fostered by its medieval sites.
(as used in expressions)
New York Zoological Park
New York Times The
New York State University of
Wilfrid of York
York Alvin Cullum
York Cape
York house of

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      town, York county, southwestern Maine, U.S., situated at the mouth of the York River on the Atlantic Ocean, 43 miles (69 km) southwest of Portland. York includes the communities of York Village, Cape Neddick, York Beach, and York Harbor. Settled in 1624 on a site called Agamenticus by Captain John Smith (Smith, John), who had explored the area in 1614, it became the first English city on the American continent when Sir Ferdinando Gorges (Gorges, Sir Ferdinando) endowed it with a city charter under the name of Gorgeana in 1641. The Massachusetts Bay Company (Massachusetts Bay Colony) took over the Gorges property in 1652, revoked the charter, reduced Gorgeana to the status of a town, and changed its name to York (for the town in Yorkshire, England). It was almost destroyed on February 2, 1692, in a raid by Abenaki Indians.

      With its snug harbours, sandy beaches, and restored colonial buildings, including Old Gaol Museum (1719, one of the oldest English public buildings in the United States), the modern town of York is an attraction for photographers, artists, and vacationers. Area 55 square miles (142 square km). Pop. (1990) 9,818; (2000) 12,854.

      former city (1983–98), southeastern Ontario, Canada. In 1998 it amalgamated with the cities of Toronto, Etobicoke, Scarborough, and North York and the borough of East York to form the City of Toronto. York was established as a borough in 1967, through the amalgamation of the township of York and the town of Weston (incorporated 1881). It was incorporated as a city in 1983. The original York Township was formed in 1793, and it was once called Dublin.

      city, seat (1749) of York county, southeastern Pennsylvania, U.S., on Codorus Creek, 28 miles (45 km) southeast of Harrisburg. It is the focus of a metropolitan district that includes the boroughs of North York and West York and a number of townships.

      York was laid out (1741) in Springettsbury Manor, a tract owned by Springett Penn, William Penn's (Penn, William) grandson, and was named for York, England. In 1777 the Continental Congress left Philadelphia at the British approach and, after holding a one-day session in Lancaster, moved to York and made it the national capital (September 30, 1777–June 27, 1778). In the old county courthouse (built 1754–56, demolished 1849), Congress passed the Articles of Confederation (Confederation, Articles of), received the news of General John Burgoyne's (Burgoyne, John) surrender at Saratoga, New York, issued the first national thanksgiving proclamation, and received word from Benjamin Franklin (Franklin, Benjamin) in Paris that France would aid the nascent United States. It was in York that the Conway Cabal, led by Thomas Conway (Conway, Thomas) to deprive George Washington (Washington, George) of command of the army, was frustrated by the Marquis de Lafayette's (Lafayette, Marie-Joseph-Paul-Yves-Roch-Gilbert du Motier, marquis de) toast to Washington in General Gates's House (c. 1751; restored). York was also the site where a large sum in silver (perhaps $600,000), lent by France, was brought in 1778, and where $10,000,000 in Continental money was issued from Benjamin Franklin's printing press. During the American Civil War, Confederate troops entered the town (June 28, 1863), forcing the retreat of a small Union force.

      The economy is well diversified, based on agriculture, manufacturing, and distribution. Manufactures include refrigerating and ordnance equipment, motorcycles, and paper. York College of Pennsylvania was founded in 1787 and the York campus of Pennsylvania State University (Penn State York) in 1926. York is noted for its farmers' markets. Inc. borough, 1787; city, 1887. Pop. (1990) city, 42,192; York MSA, 339,574; (2000) city, 40,862; York MSA, 381,751.

▪ city and unitary authority, England, United Kingdom
 city and unitary authority, geographic county of North Yorkshire, historic county of Yorkshire, northern England. It lies at the confluence of the Rivers Ouse and Foss, about midway between London and Edinburgh. It is the cathedral city of the archbishop of York and was historically the ecclesiastical capital of northern England. York is also the traditional county town of Yorkshire, located at the convergence of the three ridings (“thirds”; the administrative jurisdictions into which Yorkshire was formerly divided).

 The Romans occupied the site in 71 CE and built a fortress and wall, traces of which remain. Under the name Eboracum, the settlement served as the Romans' northern military headquarters until they withdrew about 400. Anglo-Saxon rule eventually followed. In the 7th century Paulinus became the first archbishop of York, and Edwin, king of Northumbria, built a church where the present Minster stands. The Danes conquered York in 867 and retained it as their Northumbrian capital. The city's present name was derived from the Danish Yorvick.

      York suffered severely in William I's conquest of northern England. Part of the city was demolished, land was flooded, and two defensive castles (now sites of Clifford's Tower and the Castle Museum complex) were built to subdue the rebellious north. In time the city revived and prospered as a staple (wholesale commerce) town, dealing especially in wool. The York cycle of 48 mystery plays (York plays), performed by York's many medieval craft guilds, survives. The city was incorporated in the 12th century and for a time was second only to London in size and importance. York's Cathedral (Minster) of St. Peter, the largest Gothic church in England, was built between the 13th and the 15th century. Other medieval buildings include the Guildhall (1446–48; restored after bombing in World War II), the Merchant Adventurers' Hall (1357), St. William's College (1453; founded for chantry priests), and many more. The medieval walls that surround the city are 2.5 miles (4 km) in circumference and date from the 14th century.

      Modern York is a major rail junction and the site of the National Railway Museum (1975), the only national museum outside London. The city's industrial products include railway cars as well as shock absorbers, optical instruments, glass containers, and sugar and chocolate candies. York's many medieval churches and other historic buildings make tourism a significant industry. The University of York (1963) and the archbishop's residence at Bishopthorpe lie just outside the city centre. The city and unitary authority also encompass open countryside and several rural villages. Area 105 square miles (272 square km). Pop. (2001) 137,505; (2006 est.) 191,800.

      county, extreme southwestern Maine, U.S. It is located in a coastal region bordered by New Hampshire to the west and southwest (that border largely defined by the Salmon Falls and Piscataqua rivers), the Atlantic Ocean to the east, and the Ossipee and Saco rivers to the north. Maine and New Hampshire share the Isles of Shoals, a group of islands about 7 miles (11 km) offshore that flourished as centres of fishing and trade in the early 18th century. Timber primarily consists of white and red pine, with some maple and birch. Numerous sand beaches line the coast, including Ferry Beach State Park.

      Created in November 1652, York is the oldest county in Maine. It was named for James, duke of York and Albany (later King James II). Kittery (settled 1623, incorporated 1647) is Maine's first town; it developed as a centre of shipbuilding. Settled in the early 17th century, South Berwick, York, and Kennebunkport later became popular summer resorts. European settlers clashed with the Indians from the 1670s until about 1710. The twin towns of Biddeford and Saco formed Maine's first industrial centre. Built in the early 18th century, Fort McClary in Kittery Point was remodeled in 1808, 1844, and 1864. Other communities include Kennebunk, Sanford, and Alfred, the county seat. The economy is based on the manufacture of electronic and transportation equipment, leather, rubber, and firearms. Area 991 square miles (2,567 square km). Pop. (2000) 186,742; (2007 est.) 201,341.

      county, southern Pennsylvania, U.S., bordered to the northeast and east by the Susquehanna River, to the south by Maryland, and to the northwest by Yellow Breeches Creek. It consists of a hilly piedmont region that rises to the Blue Ridge Mountains in the northwest. The county waterways include Lakes Marburg, Redman, and Williams, as well as Conewago and Codorus creeks. Parklands include Codorus and Samuel S. Lewis state parks; Gifford Pinchot State Park is located on Conewago Lake.

      Founded in 1741, the city of York (the county seat) is one of the oldest European settlements west of the Susquehanna River in Pennsylvania. The county was formed in 1748 and was named for James, duke of York and Albany (later King James II (James II)). The Continental Congress passed the Articles of Confederation (Confederation, Articles of) in York while it was the national capital during the British occupation of Philadelphia (Sept. 30, 1777–June 27, 1778). The county was known for its fabricated metal products, notably the Pennsylvania rifle in the late 18th century, the nation's first iron steamboat in the early 19th century, and automobiles in the early 20th century. The principal boroughs are Hanover, Red Lion, West York, and Dallastown.

      The two bases of the economy are manufacturing (industrial machinery, metal products, and electronic equipment) and agriculture (barley, soybeans, corn [maize], potatoes, poultry, and swine). Area 905 square miles (2,343 square km). Pop. (2000) 381,751; (2007 est.) 421,049.

      county, northern South Carolina, U.S. North Carolina forms the northern border, the Catawba River (Santee-Wateree-Catawba river system) part of the eastern border, and the Broad River part of the western border. On the northern border is Lake Wylie, created by one of the state's first hydroelectric projects, the Catawba Dam on the Catawba River. York county lies in a hilly piedmont region. The eastern portion is urban, while the western section remains rural. Part of Kings Mountain National Military Park (Kings Mountain, Battle of), site of an important battle during the U.S. War of Independence (American Revolution), is in the northwest, near Kings Mountain State Park.

      In the 17th century Catawba and Cherokee Indians agreed to make the region a neutral area between their tribal lands where both could hunt in peace. European settlers arrived in the mid-18th century, and York county was established in 1785. It was named for James II of England, who, prior to ascending the throne, had been the duke of York. After the American Civil War it became a centre of Ku Klux Klan activity.

      Cotton growing exhausted the land, but the emergence of textile mills in the late 19th century revitalized the economy. Though lumbering and agriculture (turkeys, milk, and cattle) contribute to the economy, manufacturing (paper, synthetic fibres, and textiles) continues its dominance. Winthrop University (founded 1886) is located in Rock Hill. The city of York is the county seat. Area 683 square miles (1,768 square km). Pop. (2000) 164,614; (2007 est.) 208,827.

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Universalium. 2010.

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